Table 2—

Adjusted hazard rate ratios (and 95% CIs) from multivariate Cox models for a given difference in risk factor level for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality

All-cause mortalityModel 1a (n = 827)
Model 2a (n = 799)
Model 3a (n = 795)
HR95% CIHR95% CIHR95% CI
Age (1-year increase)1.08(1.06–1.10)1.08(1.05–1.10)1.08(1.05–1.10)
Sex (M vs. F)1.43(1.07–1.90)1.45(1.07–1.97)1.44(1.06–1.96)
Ethnicity and birthplace
 U.S.-born MAs vs. NHWs1.66(1.15–2.40)1.52(1.02–2.27)1.35(0.90–2.03)
 Mexico-born MAs vs. NHWs1.14(0.63–2.06)1.08(0.58–2.01)0.97(0.52–1.81)
Diabetic medication
 Insulin vs. none2.63(1.76–3.94)1.69(1.05–2.73)
 Oral antidiabetic agents alone versus none1.26(0.88–1.81)1.04(0.71–1.52)
Current smoker versus others1.53(1.11–2.11)1.43(1.04–1.98)
Total cholesterol (high vs. low)*1.45(1.05–2.00)1.36(0.98–1.88)
HDL cholesterol (low vs. high)1.39(1.02–1.89)1.22(0.89–1.68)
Systolic blood pressure (an increase of 10 mmHg)1.05(0.96–1.16)1.09(0.99–1.19)
Duration of diabetes (an increase of 1 year)1.03(1.01–1.05)
Fasting glucose (an increase of 10 mg/dl)1.05(1.03–1.08)
Cardiovascular mortalityModel 1b (n = 825)
Model 2b (n = 797)
Model 3b (n = 793)
HR95% CIHR95% CIHR95% CI
Age (1-year increase)1.07(1.04–1.09)1.06(1.03–1.09)1.06(1.03–1.09)
Sex (M vs. F)1.45(1.01–2.10)1.64(1.11–2.42)1.67(1.12–2.47)
Ethnicity and birthplace
 U.S.-born MAs vs. NHWs1.66(1.04–2.65)1.47(0.87–2.47)1.29(0.76–2.17)
 Mexico-born MAs vs. NHWs0.89(0.40–2.01)0.90(0.39–2.09)0.83(0.36–1.91)
Diabetic medication
 Insulin vs. none3.31(2.02–5.40)1.83(1.01–3.32)
 Oral antidiabetic agents alone versus none1.27(0.78–2.04)0.97(0.58–1.60)
History of CVD at index visit (yes versus no)1.65(1.07–2.54)1.93(1.25–2.99)
Current smoker versus others1.44(0.95–2.17)1.30(0.86–1.98)
Total cholesterol (high vs. low)*1.81(1.21–2.71)1.72(1.15–2.58)
HDL cholesterol (low vs. high)1.61(1.09–2.40)1.40(0.94–2.10)
Systolic blood pressure (an increase of 10 mmHg)1.13(1.00–1.27)1.17(1.04–1.31)
Duration of diabetes (an increase of 1 year)1.04(1.01–1.06)
Fasting glucose (an increase of 10 mg/dl)1.06(1.03–1.09)
  • *

    * High total cholesterol was defined as ≥240 mg/dl (6.22 mmol/l);

  • low HDL cholesterol was defined as 35 mg/dl (0.91 mmol/l) or less in men and 45 mg/dl (1.17 mmol/l) or less in women.