Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of participants by treatment group*

CharacteristicGroup AGroup BGroup CP
N676667
Mean age (years)58.559.859.20.76
Mean diabetes duration (years)10.810.79.90.84
Employed (%)32.833.331.30.97
Mean educational achievement (years)11.110.111.00.10
Living with spouse or someone like a spouse (%)55.239.932.80.027
Total annual household income <$10,000 (%)34.330.322.40.52
Taking oral medication for diabetes (%)56.756.958.20.96
Taking insulin (%)43.340.941.80.96
Taking oral medication and insulin (%)11.97.69.00.68
Taking cholesterol lowering medication (%)22.49.117.90.11
Known CHD (%)22.415.132.80.054
Currently smoking cigarettes (%)14.919.716.40.76
High blood pressure (%)62.765.167.20.86
Mean weight lb (kg)209 (95.0)202 (91.9)210 (95.7)0.55
Mean BMI (kg/m2)36.234.636.50.35
Mean cholesterol [mg/dl (mmol/l)]198 (5.11)205 (5.31)207 (5.35)0.41
Mean HDL [mg/dl (mmol/l)]54 (1.39)50 (1.29)48 (1.25)0.10
Diabetes knowledge score9.08.69.40.29
Mean glycosylated hemoglobin (normal range for assay 5.5–7.8%)10.811.111.30.51
Dietary intake
 Mean total kcal/day1,3271,2831,2870.77
 Mean carbohydrate (% kcal)46.447.547.20.79
 Mean protein (% kcal)19.619.219.70.82
 Mean fat (% kcal)34.734.134.00.84
PA
 Mean number of days accelerometer worn6.86.86.70.64
 Mean total kcal/day2,0532,0412,0560.97
 Mean METs1.211.221.210.80
Primary care clinicians’ recommended intensity for PA intervention
 Moderate intensity (%)7359550.12
 Mild intensity (%)2329360.23
 Non–weight bearing (%)51290.28
 No activity (%)0000
  • *

    * Group A received the clinic- and community-based intervention, group B received the clinic-based intervention, and group C received the minimal intervention.

  • High blood pressure is defined as being treated by a physician for high blood pressure or taking medication to lower blood pressure.

  • Fifteen-item scale; each correct answer contributes 1 point.