Table 3—

Mean values for selected outcomes at baseline and follow-up* by treatment group

Group A
Group B
Group C
NMean (SE)NMean (SE)NMean (SE)
Calories from saturated fat (%)
 Baseline5111.3 (0.5)5110.7 (0.4)5410.6 (0.3)
 6 months5110.6 (0.4)5110.2 (0.4)5410.1 (0.4)
Dietary cholesterol (mg/day)
 Baseline51285 (19.4)51313 (21.7)54259 (17.5)
 6 months51275 (19.9)51223 (16.7)54242 (19.3)
Total energy intake (kcal/day)
 Baseline511342 (48.0)511302 (47.0)541313 (56.4)
 6 months511189 (49.1)511214 (43.5)541216 (47.6)
Glycosylated hemoglobin (normal range 5.5–7.8%)
 Baseline6010.7 (0.3)6211.0 (0.4)6111.3 (0.3)
 6 months6010.7 (0.4)6011.1 (0.4)5811.5 (0.5)
 12 months5410.8 (0.4)5910.9 (0.5)5710.7 (0.4)
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)
 Baseline60199 (4.5)62207 (5.5)61208 (5.9)
 6 months60202 (5.1)60210 (5.8)57210 (7.2)
 12 months54193 (4.5)59206 (6.0)57204 (6.2)
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)
 Baseline6054 (2.0)6250 (1.6)6149 (1.9)
 6 months6053 (2.1)6051 (1.8)5649 (2.0)
 12 months5451 (1.9)5952 (1.8)5750 (2.2)
Weight (lb)
 Baseline60207 (5.5)62204 (6.2)62210 (5.7)
 6 months60207 (5.7)60202 (6.3)59210 (5.8)
 12 months54212 (5.8)58208 (6.7)58212 (6.2)
Diabetes knowledge scale
 Baseline609.1 (0.3)608.6 (0.4)629.4 (0.4)
 6 months6010.5 (0.4)599.9 (0.3)589.6 (0.4)
 12 months5410.7 (0.3)569.8 (0.3)5710.1 (0.4)
Diabetes health status: Mental Well-Being scale§
 Baseline6121.1 (0.8)6223.5 (0.9)6324.0 (0.9)
 6 months6026.2 (0.8)6125.9 (0.9)6025.7 (1.0)
 12 months6025.6 (0.9)5925.3 (1.0)5426.8 (1.0)
Diabetes health status: Social Well-Being scale§
 Baseline6127.5 (1.0)6227.5 (1.0)6329.3 (0.9)
 6 months6029.0 (1.0)6128.8 (0.9)6030.0 (1.0)
 12 months6028.5 (1.0)5928.3 (1.0)5429.5 (1.0)
  • *

    * Means are for participants with baseline and at least one follow-up measure.

  • Group A received the clinic- and community-based intervention, group B received the clinic-based intervention, and group C received the minimal intervention. Comparison of means are adjusted for the following variables: baseline value of variable, age, educational achievement, number of years with diabetes, BMI, living with a spouse or someone like a spouse, using oral medication for diabetes, use of insulin, and an interaction term for living with spouse or someone like a spouse and use of oral medication (when interaction significant).

  • Fifteen-item scale; each correct answer contributes 1 point.

  • §

    § Nine-item scale; a higher score represents improved well-being.