Table 3—

Independent risk factors associated with incidence of diabetes complications: Cox regression analysis, EDC

ModelTotal n (events)Risk factorRR95% CI
CDSP307 (107)Specialist care (high:low)0.540.35–0.83*
Diabetes duration (years)1.31.0–1.6
HbA1c (%)1.61.3–2.0
Height (cm)1.01.0–1.0
AER (μg/min)1.31.0–1.5
Hypertension (yes:no)2.81.6–5.0
Smoking (yes:no)1.50.98–2.2
ON339 (39)Specialist care (high:low)0.430.21–0.88
Diabetes duration (years)0.790.54–1.1
HbA1c (%)2.01.5–2.7
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)0.710.49–1.0
Hypertension (yes:no)3.21.2–8.7
PR314 (112)Specialist care (high:low)1.10.79–1.8
Diabetes duration (years)1.00.87–1.4
HbA1c (%)1.61.3–1.9
AER (μg/min)1.41.2–1.8
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)1.21.0–1.3
CAD404 (67)Specialist care (high:low)0.650.37–1.1
Diabetes duration (years)2.21.6–2.9
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)0.680.51–0.9*
AER (μg/min)1.51.2–1.9
LEAD205 (57)Specialist care (high:low)0.950.53–1.7
Diabetes duration (years)1.30.96–1.8
Alcohol (drinks/week)0.690.46–1.0
Hypertension (yes:no)2.71.5–5.1*
  • Specialist care (>65%: ≤65%) and diabetes duration were included in all models.

  • *

    * P < 0.01;

  • P < 0.05;

  • P < 0.001. Additional risk factors were made available to the final models as follows: CDSP: Sex, HbA1c, height, AER, hypertension, smoking; ON: HbA1c, HDL cholesterol, hypertension; PR: HbA1c, AER, systolic blood pressure; CAD: HDL cholesterol, AER; LEAD: alcohol consumption, HbA1c, triglycerides, hypertension. All risk factors presented are those significant in the model at the P < 0.10 level. RRs are presented per 1 SD increase for the following continuous variables: diabetes duration = 7.5 years, HbA1c = 1.8%, AER = 1.9 μg/min, HDL cholesterol = 12.5 mg/dl, alcohol = 7.3 drinks/week, systolic blood pressure = 7.3 mmHg, triglycerides = 0.5 mg/dl. RRs for height are reported per 1-cm increase.