Table 4—

Independent factors associated with major depressive disorder in individuals with diabetes

Adjusted odds ratio95% CI
Race/ethnicity
 White (reference)
 Black0.70.3, 1.3
 Hispanic/other1.70.9, 3.2
Age (years)
 18–343.31.2, 8.8*
 35–495.02.4, 9.9*
 50–642.81.4, 5.5*
 ≥65 (reference)
Sex
 Women1.71.1, 2.8*
 Men (reference)
Education
 <High school0.50.3, 0.9*
 ≥High school (reference)
Poverty ratio (% of federal poverty level)
 <124%2.71.1, 6.7*
 124–199%2.30.9, 5.2
 200–399%1.50.7, 3.1
 ≥400% (reference)
Employment
 Employed0.80.4, 1.5
 Not employed (reference)
Marital status
 Married0.80.5, 1.3
 Not married (reference)
Health status
 Better1.60.8, 3.1
 Worse5.93.2, 10.9*
 Same (reference)
Obesity status (kg/m2)
 BMI <18.50.50.1, 4.0
 BMI 18.5–24.90.50.1, 4.0
 BMI 25.0–29.90.60.1, 4.2
 BMI ≥30.0 (reference)
Smoking status
 Smoker1.91.1, 3.4*
 Nonsmoker (reference)
Years since diagnosis
 <51.30.7, 2.4
 5–90.90.4, 1.7
 ≥10 (reference)
Medication use
 Diet alone0.90.5, 1.7
 Insulin or oral agents (reference)
Major complications
 Yes1.50.9, 2.5
 No (reference)
  • *

    * Statistically significant at P < 0.05. Dependent variable: major depressive disorder—yes vs. no. Independent variables: age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, employment, marital status, health status, BMI, smoking, duration of diabetes, presence or absence of major complications, and type of treatment for diabetes.