Table 1

Baseline characteristics according to depressive status

AllNondepressedMajor depressionP
N3,5733,451122
Age, years66.0 (11.4)66.1 (11.2)62.4 (14.5)<0.001
Female, %38.938.355.7<0.001
BMI, kg/m224.6 (4.2)24.5 (4.2)26.0 (5.5)<0.001
Duration of diabetes, years14.6 (10.1)14.6 (10.1)15.2 (9.5)0.461
HbA1c<0.001
 NSGP, %7.4 (1.2)7.4 (1.2)8.0 (1.7)
 IFCC, mmol/mol57.8 (13.1)57.6 (12.8)63.5 (18.6)
hs-CRP, mg/dL0.08 (0.01–0.17)0.07 (0.01–0.16)0.1 (0.01–0.29)0.0098
Diabetic retinopathy, %41.941.649.50.128
Diabetic nephropathy, %54.454.163.60.043
Diabetes therapy, %0.001
 Diet only14.614.95.7
 Oral medication only45.545.740.2
 Insulin39.939.454.1
Physical activity, %<0.001
 Low39.538.760.7
 Moderate29.029.224.6
 High31.532.114.7
Smoking, %<0.001
 Never43.342.954.6
 Past40.541.123.1
 Current16.316.219.7
Cardiovascular disease, %16.516.420.30.313
Cancer, %9.89.98.20.545
Arthritis, %§0.220.200.820.157
NSAID use, %24.123.939.50.155
  • Data are means (SD) unless otherwise indicated. IFCC, International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine; NGSP, National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program; NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  • †Median (interquartile range) is reported.

  • ‡Physical activity levels were categorized into three (low, moderate, high) categories following the scoring rule of the IPAQ (21).

  • §Osteoarthritis or collagen vascular disease including rheumatoid arthritis.