Table 1—

Comparison of outcomes in early-onset versus usual-onset type 2 diabetes

VariableEarly onsetUsual onsetP valueHR (95% CI)*
n1,6006,244
Age at diagnosis (years)37.6 ± 5.760 ± 10.1<0.001
Female sex832 (52)2,872 (46)<0.001
BMI at diagnosis (kg/m2)37.2 ± 8.633.3 ± 7.0<0.001
HbA1c at diagnosis (%)§8.7 ± 2.48.1 ± 2.2<0.001
Change in HbA1c (%)−0.4 ± 2.7−0.6 ± 2.3<0.001
Required insulin therapy (%)289 (18.1)696 (11.2)<0.001
Time to insulin use after diagnosis (years)2.3 ± 1.82.2 ± 1.80.7221.8 (1.5–2.0)
BDR pre/at diagnosis8 (0.5)71 (1.1)
BDR after diagnosis61 (3.8)404 (6.5)0.0160.7 (0.5–0.9)
PDR pre/at diagnosis1 (0.1)30 (0.5)
PDR after diagnosis25 (1.6)322 (5.2)<0.0010.4 (0.2–0.6)
Microalbuminuria pre/at diagnosis20 (1.3)105 (1.7)
Microalbuminuria after diagnosis421 (26.3)1,615 (25.9)<0.0011.2 (1.1–1.4)
Nephropathy pre/at diagnosis36 (2.3)248 (4.0)
Nephropathy after diagnosis233 (14.6)1,008 (16.1)0.2971.1 (0.9–1.3)
ESRD pre/at diagnosis6 (0.4)26 (0.4)
ESRD after diagnosis22 (1.4)97 (1.6)0.6650.9 (0.6–1.4)
Any microvascular complication# pre/at diagnosis56 (3.5)408 (6.5)
Any microvascular# after diagnosis531 (33.2)2,305 (36.9)0.1321.1 (1.0–1.2)
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%).

  • * HR is obtained from Cox proportional hazards model and adjusted for sex and length of follow-up. Only subjects who did not have the complication at diagnosis are included in the analyses.

  • BMI calculated on those with measured height in addition to weight within 3 months of diagnosis: 925 early onset, 4,130 usual onset.

  • § Calculated for those who had measured HbA1c at diagnosis: 1,570 early onset, 6,125 usual onset.

  • Calculation is determined from HbA1c measurement at diagnosis to last measurement in follow-up period. Only subjects with both measurements are included: 1,416 early onset, 5,799 usual onset.

  • Applies only to those requiring insulin therapy.

  • # Any microvascular complication includes background diabetic retinopathy (BDR), proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, or end-stage renal disease (ESRD).