Table 2—

Comparison of characteristics of individuals with diabetes by depression status

Major depressive disorder (n = 176, N = 989,599)
No depressive disorder (n = 1,634, N = 9,457,448)
P value
%SE%SE
Race/ethnicity0.1418
 White684.0681.0
 Black132.5171.0
 Hispanic/other203.3151.0
Age (years)
 18–34103.260.8<0.0001
 35–49324.3161.1
 50–64384.3351.4
 ≥65203.3421.4
Women634.4511.40.009
<High school education283.6301.30.7139
Poverty ratio (% of federal poverty level)0.003
 <124%354.5191.3
 124–199%183.4161.1
 200–399%314.8351.4
 ≥400%163.5301.5
Employed424.3441.30.6803
Married524.5621.40.0205
Health status<0.0001
 Better223.8211.1
 Worse414.5161.0
 Same384.4651.4
Obesity status (kg/m2)0.3821
 BMI <18.5474.7421.4
 BMI 18.5–24.9294.1351.3
 BMI 25.0–29.9224.2211.2
 BMI ≥30.021.010.3
Years since diagnosis0.0443
 <5374.4271.5
 5–9163.8251.4
 ≥10474.6491.6
Insulin or oral agents (versus diet alone)803.7641.00.3845
Major complications—yes514.6391.50.0165
Smoker324.4151.00.0007
Visited a primary care physician882.9841.00.3157
Visited a psychiatrist or mental health professional294.240.6<0.0001
Visited an emergency room414.4261.3<0.0001
  • Data are % (percentage of weighted sample) and SE. n = unweighted sample size; N = weighted sample.