Table 2

Description of frequently reported codes for psychosocial experiences with diabetes

Category/primary codes and secondary codes (subcategories)# coded referencesDescription
Theme 1: people with diabetes experience negative emotional reactions such as anxiety/fear, worry about hypoglycemia and complications of diabetes, depression, and negative moods/hopelessness
 Challenges for people with diabetes/psychological challengesFear, stress, and depression around diabetes. Some participants made a general reference to diabetes being “hard and difficult in general” or “mentally hard” specifically and to a worry about complications. The difference between depression and a negative mood/hopeless is that the participant mentioned the word “depressed or depression” in the former.
  Negative mood and hopeless78
  Hard and difficult84
  Mentally hard to live with diabetes44
  Never accepted having diabetes44
  Worry about complications71
 Challenges for people with diabetes/hypoglycemia
  Worry about hypoglycemia43Fear of unpredictable hypoglycemia and needing help
 Wishes for improvement
  Less anxiety or worry10Wish for less stress, anxiety, or worry about diabetes
 Diagnosis stories
  Diagnosis was challenging or emotional192Diagnosis was a difficult time, full of dread, fear, and sadness
Theme 2: people with diabetes experience discrimination at work and public misunderstanding about diabetes
 Challenges for people with diabetes/psychological challenges/people do not understand people with diabetes or people with diabetes feel discrimination
  People do not understand diabetes101General lack of understanding of diabetes in the public
  Feeling discrimination at work36Feeling discrimination at work
  Not being normal4Being against societal norms
 Wish for improvement
  Increased public awareness58Increased public awareness of insulin and seriousness of diabetes
Theme 3: people with diabetes have a positive outlook and sense of resilience in the midst of having diabetes
 Successes for people with diabetes/positive outlook affects success/coping with diabetes
  Resilience in overcoming obstacles130Resilience was coded in instances where people with diabetes said that even though they feel like giving up, they continue. Coping with diabetes in a positive way or having a general optimistic mood were examples of data.
  Gained appreciation of life13
 Successes for people with diabetes/positive outlook affects success
  Happy or pleasant overall mood115People with diabetes find optimism or a pleasant mood to be a success
  Peaceful life19Having a peaceful life
  Hope in the future17Having a sense of hope in the future
 People with diabetes “advice” or “statement”*Living happy or healthy or “one needs to have a positive outlook”
  Diabetes means living healthy or happy25
  Having positive outlook24
Theme 4: people with diabetes receive psychosocial support through caring and compassionate family, friends, health care professionals, and other people with diabetes
 Successes for people with diabetes/adequate support systemSupport system that was caring, available, and took extra time to listen to problems of diabetes. This includes family, friends, health care professionals, and other people with diabetes.
  Family members are supportive274
  Friends and others are supportive88
  Caring and compassionate health care professionals61
  Other people with diabetes support people with diabetes77
  Support or education about diabetes147People wished for more support about diabetes
 27 secondary codes1,998
  • *The difference between “advice” or “statement” and the other categories is that the statement could not be directly attributed to a challenge, wish, or success because the quote was given in broad terms (i.e., “I think people with diabetes should be happy and try to have a positive outlook” or “It is important to avoid complications.” This could not be directly attributed to a success because we cannot be certain that it was a success for the person, a wish, or simply advice.