Table 1—

Baseline characteristics

Intervention groupControl group
n (male/female)265 (91/174)257 (81/176)
Age (years)55 ± 755 ± 7
First-degree relatives with diabetes (%)6661
Schooling in years (%)
 0–94040
 10–122727
 ≥133333
Type of work (%)
 Agricultural or industrial910
 Office work or student4244
 Homemaker, retired, or unemployed4949
Weight (kg)86.7 ± 14.085.5 ± 14.4
BMI (kg/m2)31.4 ± 4.531.1 ± 4.5
Waist circumference (cm)102.0 ± 11.0100.5 ± 10.9
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)6.1 ± 0.86.2 ± 0.7
2-h plasma glucose (mmol/l)8.9 ± 1.58.9 ± 1.5
HbA1c (%)5.7 ± 0.65.6 ± 0.6
Serum total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.6 ± 1.05.6 ± 0.9
Serum HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.2 ± 0.31.2 ± 0.3
Serum total cholesterol–to–HDL cholesterol ratio4.9 ± 1.34.8 ± 1.2
Serum triglycerides (mmol/l)1.7 ± 0.81.7 ± 0.8
Blood pressure–lowering medication (%)2931
Lipid-lowering medication (%)57
Total LTPA (min/week)339 (193–545)329 (173–586)
Moderate-to-vigorous LTPA (min/week)156 (62–288)169 (65–352)
Energy (kcal/day)1,771 ± 5201,744 ± 527
Carbohydrates
 E%43.6 ± 7.543.2 ± 6.7
 g190 ± 57185 ± 54
Fat
 E%36.0 ± 6.737.1 ± 6.5
 g72 ± 2873 ± 29
Saturated fat (E%)*16.2 ± 4.017.0 ± 4.3
Monounsaturated fat (E%)12.9 ± 2.813.0 ± 2.9
Polyunsaturated fat (E%)5.7 ± 1.75.8 ± 2.2
Alcohol
 E%2.8 ± 5.12.1 ± 4.1
 g8 ± 176 ± 12
Cholesterol (mg)312 ± 137304 ± 130
Fiber
 g20 ± 720 ± 8
 g/1,000 kcal11.7 ± 4.011.7 ± 3.9
 Water soluble (g)4.6 ± 1.74.6 ± 1.6
 Water soluble (g/1,000 kcal)2.7 ± 1.02.7 ± 0.9
 Water insoluble (g)14.4 ± 5.414.1 ± 5.9
 Water insoluble (g/1,000 kcal)8.4 ± 2.98.4 ± 2.9
  • Data are mean ± SD or median (interquartile range).

  • * Difference between the groups (Student’s unpaired t test), P = 0.0188.