Table 1—

Demographic and pregnancy characteristics and risk of IA in offspring

CharacteristicAffectedUnaffectedUnadjusted HR (95% CI)Wald χ2P
n16206
Age at last follow-up (years)*4.3 ± 1.94.0 ± 1.4NANA
Child’s sex (% male)7 (43.7)101 (49.0)0.87 (0.32–2.33)0.779
Child’s ethnicity (% non-Hispanic Caucasian)15 (93.7)152 (73.8)5.29 (0.7–40.06)0.133
Maternal age at delivery (years)31.3 ± 6.029.7 ± 5.81.26 (0.8–1.96)0.331
Maternal education at delivery (% ≤12 years)4 (25.0)48 (23.3)1.09 (0.35–3.39)0.878
Income at delivery (% <$30,000/year)§4 (26.7)48 (23.8)1.04 (0.33–3.28)0.942
Birth weight (g)§3,122.9 ± 564.93,286.4 ± 527.70.74 (0.47–1.18)0.238
Pre- or post-term delivery§2 (13.3)69 (33.7)0.31 (0.07–1.37)0.148
Cesarean delivery1 (6.2)43 (20.9)0.27 (0.04–2.04)0.226
Breast-fed <3 months§6 (37.5)66 (32.3)1.3 (0.47–3.56)0.619
GDM3 (18.8)3 (1.5)9.64 (2.74–33.97)0.006
First-degree type 1 diabetic relative6 (37.5)62 (30.1)1.71 (0.62–4.75)0.302
HLA-DR3/4, DQ8 genotype14 (87.5)129 (62.6)3.17 (0.72–14.01)0.166
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%) unless otherwise indicated.

  • * For affected, average age at first positive test for IA is 2.5 ± 1.7 years;

  • outcome determined by difference in age of affected subject at first positive visit and age at last negative visit;

  • HR associated with incremental values: maternal age = 5 years, birth weight = 500 g;

  • § missing observations include income: one in the affected group (6.2%) and four (1.9%) in the unaffected group, birth weight: one from the unaffected group (0.5%), pre- or post-term delivery: one in each affected (6.2%) and unaffected group (0.5%), and breast-feeding duration: two missing observations from unaffected group (1.0%).