Table 2—

Maternal dietary exposures during pregnancy and risk of IA in offspring

Parameters (mean daily intake)AffectedUnaffectedUnadjusted HR (95% CI)Wald χ2P
n16206
Vitamin D intake via food (IU)167.6252.30.49 (0.26–0.94)*0.059
Vitamin D intake via supplements (IU)
 ≥40013 (81.3)116 (56.3)3.09 (0.88–10.83)0.107
EPA and DHA (ω-3 fatty acids) (g)
 ≥0.109 (56.3)137 (66.5)0.64 (0.24–1.71)0.380
Linolenic acid (ω-3 fatty acid) (g)1.41.31.16 (0.75–1.80)*0.503
Arachidonic acid (ω-6 fatty acid) (g)0.130.140.88 (0.5–1.56)*0.672
Linoleic acid (ω-6 fatty acid) (g)
 <7.924 (25.0)71 (34.5)1.0 (referent)
 7.92–11.788 (50.0)66 (32.0)2.01 (0.55–7.37)0.274
 >11.784 (25.0)69 (33.5)1.04 (0.26–4.16)0.955
Ratio of ω-6 total:ω-3 total7.97.81.13 (0.70–1.83)*0.624
Caloric intake (kcal)
 <1,718.885 (31.2)68 (33.0)1.0 (referent)
 1,718.88–2,491.049 (56.2)67 (32.5)1.61 (0.54–4.82)0.405
 >2,491.042 (12.5)71 (34.5)0.37 (0.07–1.93)0.258
  • Data are n (%) unless otherwise indicated.

  • * HR represent risk for an SD difference in intake: SD vitamin D = 155.6 IU; SD linolenic acid = 0.69 g; SD arachidonic acid = 0.08 g; SD ratio ω-6 total to ω-3 total = 2.00;

  • categorized as tertiles because variable did not meet the assumption of log linearity.