Table 1

HRs for CVD, CHD, CVA, and PAD in patients with T1DM compared with healthy control subjects

Study name/PMIDPopulationStudy designDiabetes duration, yStudy follow-up, yHR
CVD
 UK GPRD: Soedamah-Muthu et al., 2006 (8) PMID: 165678187,479 with T1DM vs. 38,116 without DM; men and women, generally representative of the general UK populationObservational case-control cohort15 ± 124.7Myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, stroke, acute CHD death: men, 3.6 (95% CI, 2.9–4.5); women, 7.6 (95% CI, 5.5–10.7)
CHD
 UK GPRD: Soedamah-Muthu et al., 2006 (8) PMID: 165678187,479 with T1DM vs. 38,116 without DM; men and women, generally representative of the general UK populationObservational case-control cohort15 ± 124.7Myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, acute CHD death: men, 3.0 (95% CI, 2.2–4.1); women, 7.6 (95% CI, 4.9–12.0)
CVA
 Nurses’ Health Study: Janghorbani et al., 2007 (9) PMID: 17389335116,316 women aged 30–55 y in 1976–2002, 105,247 (90.5%) women without DM, 303 (0.3%) with T1DM, and 10,766 (9.2%) with T2DM; primarily white women but includes Hispanics, blacks, and AsiansObservational cohort31.4 ± 14.324Fatal or nonfatal stroke, excluding “silent” strokes: women, 5.9 (95% CI, 4.2–8.3) compared with women without DM
PAD
 Jonasson et al., 2008 (10) PMID: 1844319231,354 patients with T1DM from the Swedish Inpatient Registry identified from 1975–2004 compared with the Swedish population; white northern EuropeansAdministrative database, ICD-9 codingND12.5Incident nontraumatic lower-extremity amputations: 85.5 (95% CI, 72.9–100.3)
  • The hazard ratio (HR) is a measure of how often a particular event happens in one group compared with how often it happens in another group, over time. HRs are as reported in the publication (Soedamah-Muthu et al. [8], Janghorbani et al. [9]) or, when not available, are estimated from the data provided in the original publication (all others). CHD, coronary heart disease; CI, confidence interval; CVA, cerebrovascular disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; EDC, Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications; GPRD, General Practice Research Database; ICD-9, International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision; ND, not determined; PAD, peripheral artery disease; PMID, PubMed-indexed for MEDLINE; T1DM, type 1 diabetes mellitus; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus; y, year.