Table 2—

Odds ratios and 95% CIs from multiple logistic regression model analysis of poor diabetes control, by race, other individual characteristics, managed care plan characteristics, and diabetes care services received, 1999

CharacteristicORCI lowerCI upperP
Race
 White (reference)
 Black1.161.101.22<0.001
 Asian0.930.831.030.152
 Hispanic1.191.091.30<0.001
Age
 65–69 years (reference)
 70–75 years0.930.900.97<0.001
Sex
 Female (reference)
 Male1.020.991.060.152
Income
 ≤$13,100 (reference)
 $13,101–16,2990.940.881.000.041
 $16,300–20,5000.930.870.980.008
 >$20,5000.870.820.92<0.001
Medicaid
 No (reference)
 Yes1.281.191.38<0.001
Profit status
 Profit (reference)
 Nonprofit0.890.850.93<0.001
HMO model
 IPA (reference)
 Group0.680.660.71<0.001
 Staff0.460.430.50<0.001
Plan size*
 ≤5,062 (reference)
 5,063–12,0260.990.931.060.757
 12,027–25,7200.880.820.93<0.001
 25,721–318,9820.900.840.960.001
Percentage minority
 0–3 (reference)
 3.01–81.721.621.83<0.001
 8.01–161.661.561.77<0.001
 16.01–681.761.631.89<0.001
U.S. census region
 Midwest1.050.991.120.103
 Northeast1.861.771.95<0.001
 South1.331.261.40<0.001
 West (reference)
Eye examination
 No (reference)
 Yes0.520.500.54<0.001
LDL cholesterol test
 No (reference)
 Yes0.320.310.34<0.001
  • Data are n or %.

  • * Plan size = total number of Medicare beneficiaries in plan;

  • percentage minority = percent of persons in the plan who are either black, Asian, Hispanic, or Native American. HMO, health maintenance organization.