Table 1—

Characteristics by diabetes status

DiabetesNo diabetesP*
n (%)556 (19)2,370 (81)
Sociodemographic
 Males55.9%46.9%
 Blacks56.7%38.7%
 Age (years)73.6 ± 2.973.6 ± 2.9NS
 Education <12 years26.0%21.5%
Diabetes severity
 Treatment (%)
  Number of medications taken6.5 ± 3.95.5 ± 4
  Any hypoglycemic medication64.4%
  On insulin17.1%
  On oral hypoglycemics47.6%
 Blood examination
  Fasting glucose (mg/dl)153.8 ± 54.993.3 ± 10
  HbA1c (%)7.8 ± 1.56 ± 0.6
  Triglycerides (mg/dl)166.9 ± 105.7132.3 ± 76.1
Diabetes-related comorbidities
 Cerebrovascular disease9.6%7.5%NS
 Coronary heart disease26.7%18.2%
 Congestive heart failure5.7%2.2%
 Hypertension65.2%48.1%
 Peripheral arterial disease6.3%4.6%NS
 Renal insufficiency5.1%4.4%NS
 Poor eyesight25.0%19.3%
 Urinary incontinence42.7%37.2%
Systolic blood pressure137.8 ± 21.4135.5 ± 21.0
Diastolic blood pressure69.2 ± 11.571.8 ± 11.7
Lowest ankle-arm index1.04 ± 0.21.07 ± 0.2
Cognitive function
 Teng Mini-Mental Score89.4 ± 8.990.2 ± 8.2
 Digit symbol substitution score34.0 ± 14.235.3 ± 14.8
Potential confounders
 Osteoarthritis11.5%9.6%NS
 Depression4.6%4.6%NS
 Current smokers7.4%10.0%
 Physical activity (kcal/week)943.1 ± 2,0011,062.2 ± 1,844NS
Body composition
 Weight (kg)80.7 ± 14.974.9 ± 14.8
 BMI (kg/m2)29.1 ± 4.927.1 ± 4.7
 Total fat (kg) (DXA)28.1 ± 9.125.5 ± 8.5
 Total lean soft-tissue (kg) (DXA)50.0 ± 9.647.1 ± 10.0
  • Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated. NS, not significant.

  • * P values from age/sex/race-adjusted logistic regression or linear models comparing individuals with and without diabetes.

  • P < 0.01;

  • P < 0.05