Table 2

Other cause(s) of CKD should be considered in the presence of any of the following circumstances

• Absence of diabetic retinopathy;
• Low or rapidly decreasing GFR;
• Rapidly increasing proteinuria or nephrotic syndrome;
• Refractory hypertension;
• Presence of active urinary sediment;
• Signs or symptoms of other systemic disease; or
• >30% reduction in GFR within 2–3 months after initiation of an ACE inhibitor or ARB.
  • Reproduced with permission from NKF (4).