Variable | Intervention group* (n = 33) | Control group* (n = 28) | CI | P† |
---|---|---|---|---|
Change in weight (kg) | −1.0 ± 2.2 | 0.4 ± 2.3 | −2.48 to −0.15 | 0.028 |
Change in BMI (kg/m^{2}) | −0.4 ± 0.9 | 0.2 ± 1.0 | −1.06 to −0.08 | 0.022 |
Change in fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl)‡ | −19 ± 55 | 16 ± 78 | −71.1 to −0.28 | 0.048 |
Change in glycosylated hemo-globin (%) | −1.8 ± 2.3 | −0.4 ± 2.3 | −2.52 to −0.15 | 0.028 |
Change in serum lipids (mg/dl) | ||||
Total cholesterol | −8 ± 36 | 1 ± 33 | −27.05 to 8.67 | 0.31 |
HDL cholesterol | −5 ± 5 | −3 ± 6 | −4.05 to 1.95 | 0.49 |
LDL cholesterol§ | 5 ± 36 | −1 ± 29 | −12.43 to 24.02 | 0.53 |
Triglycerides | −48 ± 163 | 27 ± 176 | −162.5 to 11.7 | 0.09 |
Change in blood pressure (mmHg) | ||||
Systolic | −5 ± 23 | −4 ± 16 | −10.75 to 10.06 | 0.95 |
Diastolic | −7 ± 9 | −3 ± 8 | −8.57 to 0.24 | 0.06 |
Data are means ± SD.
↵* A total of 14 subjects (7 intervention; 7 control) did not undergo end-point measurements;
↵† P values were determined by a two-tailed, homoscedastic t test for the difference between the groups;
↵‡ because not all subjects were fasting, the fasting plasma glucose could not be measured for all subjects and therefore, n = 57 for fasting plasma glucose (intervention group, n = 30; control group, n = 27);
↵§ LDL cholesterol value was calculated based on the following formula: LDL cholesterol = total cholesterol − (triglycerides/5 + HDL cholesterol). LDL cholesterol values were only calculated when triglycerides were < 400 mg/dl. For this reason, n = 53 for LDL cholesterol (intervention group, n = 29; control group, n = 24).