Table 2—

Changes in clinical and metabolic variables from baseline to end-point measurements of subjects in the intervention and control groups

VariableIntervention group* (n = 33)Control group* (n = 28)CIP
Change in weight (kg)−1.0 ± 2.20.4 ± 2.3−2.48 to −0.150.028
Change in BMI (kg/m2)−0.4 ± 0.90.2 ± 1.0−1.06 to −0.080.022
Change in fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl)−19 ± 5516 ± 78−71.1 to −0.280.048
Change in glycosylated hemo-globin (%)−1.8 ± 2.3−0.4 ± 2.3−2.52 to −0.150.028
Change in serum lipids (mg/dl)
 Total cholesterol−8 ± 361 ± 33−27.05 to 8.670.31
 HDL cholesterol−5 ± 5−3 ± 6−4.05 to 1.950.49
 LDL cholesterol§5 ± 36−1 ± 29−12.43 to 24.020.53
 Triglycerides−48 ± 16327 ± 176−162.5 to 11.70.09
Change in blood pressure (mmHg)
 Systolic−5 ± 23−4 ± 16−10.75 to 10.060.95
 Diastolic−7 ± 9−3 ± 8−8.57 to 0.240.06
  • Data are means ± SD.

  • *

    * A total of 14 subjects (7 intervention; 7 control) did not undergo end-point measurements;

  • P values were determined by a two-tailed, homoscedastic t test for the difference between the groups;

  • because not all subjects were fasting, the fasting plasma glucose could not be measured for all subjects and therefore, n = 57 for fasting plasma glucose (intervention group, n = 30; control group, n = 27);

  • §

    § LDL cholesterol value was calculated based on the following formula: LDL cholesterol = total cholesterol − (triglycerides/5 + HDL cholesterol). LDL cholesterol values were only calculated when triglycerides were < 400 mg/dl. For this reason, n = 53 for LDL cholesterol (intervention group, n = 29; control group, n = 24).