Table A1—

Unit costs used for calculating costs of DPP by type of cost

ItemsUnitCost (median/mean, $)Sources
Direct medical costs
 DPP personnel
  LCM1 h23.55DPP
  MCM1 h25.24DPP
  Exercise trainer1 h26.02DPP
  Dietitian1 h26.21DPP
  Medical assistant1 h18.14DPP
  Secretary1 h19.54DPP
  Educational and training material
Lifestyle1 set8.85DPP
Metformin1 set0.08DPP
Placebo1 set2.26DPP
 Lab tests and procedures
  Exercise tests (CVD stress)1114.009
  Serum creatinine16.849
  Urine creatinine16.929
  Metformin1 tablet1.1010
  Prescription medications1 year/person407.0011
 Bundled medical services
  Hospital days*12,353.0012,13
  Emergency room visits1167.0013
  Urgent care visits191.0013
  Outpatient visits151.0013
  Calls to providers120.0013
Direct nonmedical costs
 Participant time
  Travel time1 h8.0014
  People who dislike exercise1 h8.0014
  People who are neutral about exercise1 h4.0014
  Shopping and cooking1 h4.0014
  Exercise classes1 week16.6015
  Health club3 years2,305.0016
  Personal trainer1 h34.0017
  Commercial weight loss classes1 month46.0016
 Fitness equipment
  Exercise shoes1 pair73.2716
  Exercise videos115.0216
  Free weights239.0618
  Golf clubs1 set390.6118
  Home gym1683.5716
  Stationary bicycle1548.8016
  Step1 system78.1218
 Food equipment
  Air popper125.3919
  Food scale124.4121
  Wok1 set206.1016
 Food costs
  Food at home1 year1,633.0022
  Food away from home1 year1,430.0022
 Transportation costs1 mile0.3523
Indirect costs
  Time lost from doing usual activity due to morbidity or mortality1 day108.0014
  • *

    * Cost of a hospital day based on facility charge of $2,242 (Health Care Utilization Project) and a physician fee of $111.

  • Cost of an emergency room visit based on the facility charge of $102 (Health Care Financing Administration, personal communication with Mr. Jerry Riley) and a physician fee of $51 (HealthCare Consultants of America). LCM, Lifestyle Case Manager; MCM, Medication Case Manager.