Table 2—

Per capita direct medical costs of the metformin intervention by year

ItemProviderUnitsSubjects (%)Time (h)Unit cost ($)Total cost ($)
Year 1
 Standard lifestyle recommendation (see Table 1 year 1 for details)43
 Baseline history and physical examPhysician110091.0091
 Baseline labs
  Venipuncture11003.003
  Serum creatinine11006.847
  Hemoglobin/hematocrit11007.918
  Urine creatinine10.36.920
 Metformin fact-sheet11000.080
 Metformin
  0 tablet dose091.100
  1 tablet dose365151.1060
  2 tablet dose730761.10610
 Follow-up visitsMCM3.461000.3325.2429
MA3.46620.3318.1413
 Dose-titration/restart visitsMCM1.391000.3325.2412
 Outbound phone callsMCM3250.1625.243
 Inbound phone callsMCM2300.1625.243
 Reminder phone callsSecretary5.851000.0819.5410
 Tool box17
 Overhead (69% of personnel)110
Total cost (year 1)1,019
Year 2
 Standard lifestyle recommendation (see Table 1 year 2 for details)18
 Lab monitoring
  Venipuncture1843.003
  Serum creatinine1846.846
  Hemoglobin/hematocrit1847.917
  Urine creatinine10.46.920
 Metformin
  0 tablet dose0161.100
  1 tablet dose365141.1056
  2 tablet dose730701.10562
 Follow-up visitsMCM3.971000.3325.2433
MA3.97620.3318.1415
 Dose-titration/restart visitsMCM0.071000.3325.241
 Outbound phone callsMCM3250.1625.243
 Inbound phone callsMCM2300.1625.243
 Reminder phone callsSecretary4.041000.0819.547
 Tool box17
 Overhead (69% of personnel)42
Total cost (year 2)772
Year 3
 Standard lifestyle recommendation (see Table year 3 for details)18
 Lab monitoring
  Venipuncture1803.002
  Serum creatinine1806.845
  Hemoglobin/hematocrit1807.916
  Urine creatinine10.46.920
 Metformin
  0 tablet dose0201.100
  1 tablet dose365121.1048
  2 tablet dose730681.10546
 Follow-up visitsMCM3.971000.3325.2433
MA3.97620.3318.1415
 Dose-titration/restart visitsMCM0.071000.3325.241
 Outbound phone callsMCM3250.1625.243
 Inbound phone callsMCM2300.1625.243
 Reminder phone callsSecretary4.041000.0819.547
 Tool box22
 Overhead (69% of personnel)42
Total cost (year 3)751
Total cost (years 1–3)2,542
  • MA, Medical Assistant; MCM, Medication Case Manager.