Table 5—

Per capita direct nonmedical costs by intervention group, years 1–3

PlaceboPlacebo costs ($)MetforminMetformin costs ($)LifestyleLifestyle costs ($)Metformin vs. placebo ($)Lifestyle vs. placebo ($)
Participant time
 Visits24.17 h19339.62 h317135.67 h1,085124892
 Adjusted exercise*163.35 h728164.83 h731150.80 h7043−24
 Shopping and cooking1120.58 h4,4821075.74 h4,3031062.78 h4,251−179−231
 Exercise classes16%20714%18121%272−2565
 Health club19%21919%21827%311−192
 Personal trainer4%74%75%802
 Commercial weight loss classes12%9913%1076%508−49
Fitness equipment
 Exercise videos29%425%437%601
 Free weights24%921%835%14−14
 Golf clubs5%104%85%10−20
 Home gym5%174%145%17−30
 Stationary bicycle10%2810%2713%3608
Food equipment
 Air popper7%24%19%2−11
 Food scale11%312%326%604
Shoes3 pairs2203 pairs2206 pairs4390220
Food costs
 Food at home4,9954,9875,002−77
 Food away from home4,2294,2394,15010−79
Transportation costs224.4 miles79440.6 miles1541606.2 miles56276484
Grand total15,69215,68317,137−91,445
  • *

    * Leisure-time physical activity was valued according to whether participants “disliked,” were “neutral,” or “liked” leisure-time physical activity.

  • We assumed that durable equipment initially valued at >$100 (see appendix) retained 50% of its original purchase price after 3 years. Percent value stated in rounded numbers.