Table 3—

The risk for incidence of impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes by alcohol intake within subgroups

Risk factorsRate per 1,000 person-yearsAlcohol intake (g ethanol/day)
P value*
00.1–22.923.0–45.946.0–68.9≥69.0
Age (median, 46.4 years)
 Below median17.41.54 (0.93–2.54)1.11 (0.69–1.79)1.00 (Referent)0.99 (0.64–1.55)1.12 (0.67–1.87)0.153
 At or above median24.41.56 (0.96–2.53)1.52 (0.94–2.47)1.00 (Referent)1.39 (0.90–2.14)1.78 (1.11–2.88)0.038
Family history of diabetes
 No19.81.53 (1.06–2.21)1.32 (0.91–1.90)1.00 (Referent)1.23 (0.89–1.71)1.50 (1.04–2.17)0.015
 Yes30.91.64 (0.58–4.65)1.29 (0.53–3.14)1.00 (Referent)0.85 (0.34–2.12)1.05 (0.39–2.82)0.457
BMI (median, 23.2 kg/m2)
 Below median16.71.90 (1.12–3.24)1.51 (0.89–2.56)1.00 (Referent)1.27 (0.78–2.03)1.44 (0.82–2.53)0.056
 At or above median24.91.35 (0.85–2.13)1.21 (0.78–1.89)1.00 (Referent)1.14 (0.76–1.70)1.48 (0.95–2.29)0.069
Current smoking
 No16.72.20 (1.26–3.86)1.86 (1.07–3.22)1.00 (Referent)1.74 (1.03–2.94)2.64 (1.48–4.74)0.002
 Yes24.81.20 (0.77–1.89)1.05 (0.68–1.64)1.00 (Referent)0.95 (0.65–1.40)1.06 (0.70–1.62)0.405
Physical exercise (times/week)
 Hardly any21.11.53 (0.96–2.45)1.31 (0.81–2.12)1.00 (Referent)1.09 (0.69–1.72)1.44 (0.88–2.37)0.055
 Once or more20.31.52 (0.90–2.55)1.31 (0.81–2.13)1.00 (Referent)1.29 (0.84–1.96)1.39 (0.86–2.26)0.153
  • Data are relative risk (95% CI) unless indicated otherwise. Relative risks were adjusted for age, family history of diabetes, BMI, cigarette smoking, and regular physical activity at study entry.

  • *

    * For quadratic trend.