Table 2—

Glucose concentrations and blood pressure before, at, and after onset of diabetes in youth, younger adults, and older adults

Duration of diabetes (years)YouthYounger adultOlder adultP*
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)
 Prediagnosis5.4 ± 0.5 (57)5.7 ± 0.7 (242)5.9 ± 0.7 (138)<0.0001
 At diagnosis9.7 ± 4.3 (63)9.1 ± 3.7 (280)8.1 ± 3.2 (168)0.002
 0–510.3 ± 4.6 (140)10.1 ± 3.9 (894)10.0 ± 4.0 (555)0.7
 5–1013.0 ± 4.6 (65)11.9 ± 3.9 (464)11.6 ± 3.9 (350)0.04
 10–1513.6 ± 4.9 (48)13.1 ± 3.8 (356)11.9 ± 4.2 (321)0.0002
2-h plasma glucose (mmol/l)
 Prediagnosis7.2 ± 1.6 (73)7.8 ± 1.7 (350)8.0 ± 1.7 (226)0.008
 At diagnosis16.8 ± 5.2 (79)16.3 ± 5.6 (355)15.5 ± 4.6 (230)0.07
 0–516.7 ± 6.1 (144)17.4 ± 6.1 (1,119)17.9 ± 6.2 (794)0.04
 5–1018.8 ± 6.5 (56)19.4 ± 6.0 (512)19.4 ± 6.2 (436)0.74
 10–1521.6 ± 5.7 (42)21.6 ± 5.6 (376)20.6 ± 6.3 (365)0.08
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)
 Prediagnosis115 ± 16 (79)121 ± 16 (347)128 ± 19 (227)<0.0001
 At diagnosis120 ± 14 (79)122 ± 17 (353)130 ± 20 (229)<0.0001
 0–5121 ± 14 (150)124 ± 16 (1,135)133 ± 22 (797)<0.0001
 5–10115 ± 14 (72)124 ± 18 (587)135 ± 22 (491)<0.0001
 10–15116 ± 14 (53)128 ± 21 (428)139 ± 23 (410)<0.0001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)
 Prediagnosis62 ± 11 (79)72 ± 12 (347)79 ± 12 (226)<0.0001
 At diagnosis67 ± 13 (79)74 ± 12 (353)81 ± 12 (229)<0.0001
 0–568 ± 11 (150)76 ± 11 (1,135)81 ± 11 (797)<0.0001
 5–1069 ± 11 (72)77 ± 12 (587)80 ± 10 (490)<0.0001
 10–1572 ± 10 (53)79 ± 12 (427)80 ± 11 (409)<0.0001
  • Data are means ± SD (n). Values for participants with more than one examination during the same duration period are averaged before calculating the overall average for that duration period for each group.

  • *

    * Calculated by ANOVA;

  • Mean times between prediagnosis examination and examination at diagnosis for youth, younger adults, and older adults were 3.1 ± 1.1, 3.0 ± 1.1, and 2.9 ± 1.1 years, respectively, P = 0.3 by ANOVA. Youth, onset age of diabetes <20 years; younger adults, onset age of diabetes 20–39 years; older adults, onset age of diabetes 40–59 years.