Table 4—

Estimated ORs for diabetes (either previously diagnosed or newly diagnosed) from generalized estimating equations among PBCSS participants aged ≥20 years

VariableFemale participants (n = 593)
Male participants (n = 462)
Female plus male participants (n = 1,055)
Univariate model*Multivariate model AMultivariate model BUnivariate model*Multivariate model BUnivariate model*Multivariate model B
Female1.70 (1.20–2.39)1.39 (0.97–1.98)
Age (years)
 20–390.16 (0.10–0.25)0.17 (0.11–0.28)0.16 (0.10–0.25)0.22 (0.12–0.39)0.19 (0.10–0.35)0.18 (0.13–0.26)0.17 (0.12–0.25)
 40–59 (ref)1.001.001.001.001.001.001.00
 ≥603.36 (1.85–6.10)2.92 (1.50–5.67)3.28 (1.77–6.10)1.89 (0.90–4.00)2.40 (1.11–5.20)2.66 (1.70–4.16)2.88 (1.80–4.61)
BMI (kg/m2)
 <25 (ref)1.001.001.001.001.001.001.00
 25–29.91.85 (1.04–3.29)1.86 (1.05–3.31)1.86 (1.05–3.31)2.18 (1.15–4.17)2.12 (1.12–4.03)2.07 (1.35–3.19)2.08 (1.35–3.20)
 ≥302.40 (1.37–4.22)2.37 (1.34–4.19)2.45 (1.39–4.31)3.62 (1.71–7.67)3.55 (1.68–7.50)2.87 (1.83–4.52)2.88 (1.83–4.54)
Physical inactivity0.88 (0.58–1.33)0.81 (0.52–1.26)0.84 (0.55–1.28)1.38 (0.80–2.37)1.28 (0.74–2.22)1.03 (0.74–1.43)0.97 (0.69–1.35)
Parity
 00.45 (0.19–1.07)0.49 (0.20–1.17)
 1–3 (ref)1.001.00
 ≥41.71 (1.10–2.68)1.54 (0.96–2.47)
Gestational diabetes3.19 (1.75–5.83)2.86 (1.53–5.34)
  • Data are OR (95% CI).

  • *

    * The univariate model includes only one variable, with adjustment for age and, when female and male participants are combined, sex;

  • the multivariate model includes all applicable variables, with multivariate model A including the female-specific variables of parity and GDM, and multivariate model B omitting these variables.