Table 1

General characteristics of women with GDM

Normal glucose 
(n = 779)Prediabetes (n = 401)Diabetes 
(n = 83)P value
Isolated IGT 
(n = 128)Isolated IFG 
(n = 171)IGT and IFG 
(n = 102)
Age (years)32.3 ± 3.532.4 ± 3.332.5 ± 3.632.4 ± 3.632.7 ± 3.80.864
Time postpartum (months)27.0 ± 1027.3 ± 1127.8 ± 1026.5 ± 9.731.6 ± 110.005
BMI (kg/m2)
 Before pregnancy22.4 ± 3.024.2 ± 3.423.2 ± 3.124.6 ± 3.725.6 ± 3.7<0.001
 At baseline survey23.2 ± 3.425.9 ± 4.124.5 ± 3.926.3 ± 4.327.3 ± 4.0<0.001
β-Cell dysfunctiona18.4 (143)10.9 (14)43.9 (75)33.3 (34)59.0 (49)<0.001
Insulin resistanceb16.8 (131)32.8 (42)34.5 (59)53.9 (55)61.4 (51)<0.001
Decreased insulin sensitivityc15.5 (121)31.3 (40)31.6 (54)50.0 (51)57.8 (48)<0.001
Family history of diabetes31.7 (247)39.8 (51)36.7 (63)42.6 (43)59.0 (49)<0.001
BMI categories (kg/m2)
 Before pregnancy<0.001
  <2471.9 (560)57.8 (74)63.2 (108)50.0 (51)36.1 (30)
  24–27.923.2 (181)29.7 (38)29.8 (51)32.4 (33)38.6 (32)
  ≥284.88 (38)12.5 (16)7.02 (12)17.6 (18)25.3 (21)
 At baseline survey<0.001
  <2463.3 (493)39.1 (50)52.6 (90)30.4 (31)21.7 (18)
  24–27.927.6 (215)31.3 (40)29.8 (51)44.1 (45)38.6 (32)
  ≥289.11 (71)29.7 (38)17.5 (30)25.5 (26)39.8 (33)
 Combined categories<0.001
  <28 both before pregnancy and at baseline survey89.5 (697)68.8 (88)80.7 (138)72.5 (74)56.6 (47)
  <28 before pregnancy and ≥28 at baseline survey5.65 (44)18.8 (24)12.3 (21)9.80 (10)18.1 (15)
  ≥28 before pregnancy and <28 at baseline survey1.41 (11)1.56 (2)1.75 (3)1.96 (2)3.61 (3)
  ≥28 both before pregnancy and at baseline survey3.47 (27)10.9 (14)5.26 (9)15.7 (16)21.7 (18)
  • Data are means ± SD or % (n). One-way ANOVA was used to assess the total differences.

  • aβ-Cell dysfunction is defined as the lower quartile of HOMA-%β.

  • bInsulin resistance is defined as the upper quartile of HOMA-IR.

  • cDecreased insulin sensitivity is defined as the lower quartile of HOMA-%S.