Table 4

Standardized polytomous logistic regression estimates for ORs of each glucose status with β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance considering changes in BMI (kg/m2) from prepregnancy to baseline survey of the current study (1–5 years postpartum)

ORs (95% CIs)Ptrenda
Normal glucose (n = 779)Prediabetes (IGT and/or IFG) (n = 401)Diabetes (n = 83)
β-Cell dysfunctionb
 BMI <28 both before pregnancy and at baseline survey1.002.55 (1.88–3.46)9.58 (4.84–19.0)<0.001
 BMI <28 before pregnancy and ≥28 at baseline survey0.10 (0.01–0.74)0.15 (0.03–0.61)4.31 (1.33–14.0)<0.001
 BMI ≥28 before pregnancy and <28 at baseline survey1.34 (0.33–5.54)1.42 (0.25–8.17)4.66 (0.27–80.9)0.970
 BMI ≥28 both before pregnancy and baseline survey0.14 (0.02–1.05)0.84 (0.35–1.98)4.02 (1.52–10.6)0.002
Insulin resistancec
 BMI <28 both before pregnancy and at baseline survey1.002.83 (2.01–3.97)7.14 (3.72–13.7)<0.001
 BMI <28 before pregnancy and ≥28 at baseline survey5.91 (3.06–11.4)19.6 (10.1–38.1)26.7 (6.88–104)0.040
 BMI ≥28 before pregnancy and <28 at baseline survey0.61 (0.08–4.97)6.38 (1.28–31.8)12.7 (0.72–224)0.982
 BMI ≥28 both before pregnancy and at baseline survey13.8 (5.91–32.1)9.86 (4.91–19.8)18.7 (6.36–55.2)0.630
  • The number of subjects in each group is presented in Table 1.

  • Adjusted for age, time postpartum, sitting time, dietary fiber, and monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, and saturated fat intake (continuous variables for above all variables) and education, family history of diabetes, smoking, passive smoking, drinking alcohol, and leisure-time physical activity (categorical variables for above all variables).

  • aTesting trend for differences from normal glucose to prediabetes to diabetes in each BMI category.

  • bβ-Cell dysfunction is defined as the lower quartile of HOMA-%β.

  • cInsulin resistance is defined as the upper quartile of HOMA-IR.