Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of the patients*

CharacteristicAllNDDM
n3903323442
Men/women (%)44/5642/5865/3557/43
Age (years)73.0 ± 5.172.7 ± 5.075.3 ± 6.475.5 ± 4.6
Current BMI (kg/m2)23.4 ± 3.323.5 ± 3.222.8 ± 4.722.4 ± 2.6
Past maximum BMI (kg/m2)26.7 ± 3.626.6 ± 3.527.1 ± 4.826.9 ± 3.3
ΔBMI (kg/m2)−3.4 ± 2.7−3.3 ± 2.5−4.4 ± 2.9−4.4 ± 3.6
Duration of diabetes (years)15.2 ± 9.715.1 ± 10.016.0 ± 11.115.6 ± 9.8
Positive family history of diabetes (%)48483848
Plasma glucose (mmol/l)9.8 ± 3.39.7 ± 3.310.6 ± 3.410.9 ± 2.9
HbA1c (%)6.8 ± 1.16.8 ± 1.16.7 ± 1.06.8 ± 1.0
Serum creatinine (μmol/l)70.7 ± 35.361.9 ± 26.570.7 ± 8.8106.1 ± 70.7
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.09 ± 0.915.09 ± 0.914.99 ± 1.035.25 ± 0.88
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.42 ± 0.441.45 ± 0.441.34 ± 0.341.34 ± 0.34
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.00 ± 0.882.97 ± 0.852.82 ± 0.933.15 ± 0.93
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.42 ± 0.851.41 ± 0.831.63 ± 1.221.58 ± 1.06
Blood pressure (mmHg)
 SBP136 ± 16137 ± 16135 ± 17138 ± 17
 Diastolic blood pressure74 ± 1074 ± 1074 ± 1172 ± 9
 Mean blood pressure95 ± 1095 ± 1094 ± 1194 ± 10
Use of hypoglycemic agents (%)85858581
Use of oral hypoglycemics (%)55565650
 Sulfonylurea (%)47484745
 α-Glucosidase inhibitor (%)13131810
 Biguanide (%)7735
 Thiazolidinedione (%)2230
Use of insulin (%)39393836
Use of lipid-lowering agents (%)1313912
 HMG CoA RI (%)91067
 Others (%)3335
Microangiopathy (%)75747688
 Retinopathy (%)31284150
 Neuropathy (%)69676886
 Macroproteinuria (%)23205045
 Scr ≥2 mg/dl (%)311212
Microalbuminuria (%)51476873
Macroangiopathy (%)28255050
 Myocardial infarction (%)15141514
 Stroke (%)16124140
Use of antihypertensives (%)56565962
 Ca2+ channel blocker (%)45445352
 ACEI (%)27263533
 Others (%)18182424
Smoking
 No (%)62653548
 Ex (%)16152421
 Current (%)22204131
Malignancy (%)88125
  • *

    * Plus-minus values are means ± SD. N, the patients who did not experience end points during the study; D, deceased; DM, the patients who developed a diabetes-related end point (for definition of diabetes-related end point, see research design and methods).

  • Microalbuminuria was determined in 368 patients and not determined in 22. RI, reductase inhibitor; ACEI, ACE inhibitor.