Table 3

Mean annual costs (in 2012 dollars) over follow-up by intervention assignment for subgroups of participants based on baseline characteristics

SubgroupDSEILIDifference (95% CI)DSE vs. ILI P valueInteraction P value
Age
 45–54 years
  Hospitalization1,674 (190)1,876 (184)−203 (−721 to 316)0.440.14
  Outpatient1,902 (80)1,928 (78)−26 (−246 to 193)0.810.85
  Medication3,439 (87)3,372 (84)67 (−170 to 305)0.580.13
  Total7,014 (263)7,176 (255)−162 (−879 to 556)0.660.09
 55–64 years
  Hospitalization2,713 (129)2,355 (128)358 (2 to 713)0.05
  Outpatient2,313 (54)2,272 (54)41 (−109 to 191)0.59
  Medication3,892 (59)3,560 (58)332 (170 to 495)<0.0001
  Total8,918 (178)8,187 (177)731 (239 to 1,223)0.004
 65–76 years
  Hospitalization4,321 (208)3,828 (218)493 (−97 to 1,084)0.10
  Outpatient2,954 (88)2,973 (92)−19 (−269 to 230)0.88
  Medication3,911 (95)3,521 (100)390 (120 to 660)0.005
  Total11,186 (288)10,322 (302)864 (47 to 1,681)0.04
BMI
 25–29.9 kg/m2
  Hospitalization2,125 (254)2,250 (240)−125 (−810 to 561)0.720.36
  Outpatient2,085 (103)2,219 (97)−134 (−424 to 156)0.360.43
  Medication3,476 (115)3,084 (109)392 (82 to 702)0.010.72
  Total7,686 (352)7,552 (333)133 (−818 to 1,084)0.780.58
 30.0–39.9 kg/m2
  Hospitalization2,864 (121)2,453 (122)411 (74 to 748)0.02
  Outpatient2,333 (51)2,296 (51)38 (−105 to 180)0.60
  Medication3,823 (55)3,574 (55)249 (97 to 401)0.001
  Total9,021 (168)8,322 (169)698 (231 to 1,165)0.003
 >40.0 kg/m2
  Hospitalization3,001 (202)2,829 (201)172 (−387 to 731)0.55
  Outpatient2,537 (89)2,425 (88)112 (−134 to 358)0.37
  Medication3,867 (91)3,603 (91)264 (11 to 516)0.04
  Total9,405 (281)8,857 (279)548 (−228 to 1,323)0.17
Sex
 Female
  Hospitalization2,311 (123)2,221 (123)90 (−252 to 432)0.600.08
  Outpatient2,293 (52)2,256 (52)37 (−108 to 182)0.620.90
  Medication3,651 (56)3,385 (56)266 (111 to 421)0.0010.76
  Total8,255 (171)7,862 (171)393 (−82 to 867)0.100.18
 Male
  Hospitalization3,510 (151)2,931 (151)579 (160 to 998)0.007
  Outpatient2,420 (64)2,398 (64)23 (−155 to 201)0.80
  Medication3,984 (69)3,679 (68)305 (115 to 495)0.002
  Total9,914 (210)9,008 (209)906 (325 to 1,487)0.002
History of cardiovascular disease
 No
  Hospitalization2,407 (101)2,082 (101)325 (46 to 604)0.020.71
  Outpatient2,295 (43)2,162 (43)133 (13 to 252)0.03<0.0001
  Medication3,667 (46)3,324 (46)343 (216 to 470)<0.00010.02
  Total8,369 (139)7,568 (139)801 (417 to 1,185)<0.00010.02
 Yes
  Hospitalization5,373 (261)5,191 (253)181 (−533 to 895)0.62
  Outpatient2,674 (112)3,266 (109)−592 (−889 to −286)0.0002
  Medication4,569 (119)4,635 (116)−67 (−392 to 259)0.69
  Total12,615 (360)13,093 (349)−478 (−1,461 to 505)0.34
Race/ethnicity
 African American
  Hospitalization2,118 (242)2,590 (241)−473 (−1,142 to 197)0.170.08
  Outpatient2,090 (101)2,278 (101)−189 (−469 to 91)0.190.32
  Medication3,437 (107)3,129 (107)308 (11 to 605)0.040.95
  Total7,644 (332)7,998 (331)−353 (−1,271 to 565)0.450.13
 American Indian
  Hospitalization2,188 (431)1,956 (424)232 (−953 to 1,417)0.70
  Outpatient1,479 (180)1,607 (177)−128 (−624 to 367)0.61
  Medication2,649 (191)2,503 (188)146 (−380 to 672)0.59
  Total6,316 (591)6,066 (581)250 (−1,375 to 1,874)0.76
 Hispanic/Latino
  Hospitalization2,276 (269)1,468 (267)808 (65 to 1,551)0.03
  Outpatient1,742 (113)1,545 (112)197 (−114 to 508)0.21
  Medication3,031 (119)2,654 (118)377 (47 to 707)0.02
  Total7,048 (369)5,666 (366)1,382 (363 to 2,401)0.008
 Non-Hispanic white
  Hospitalization3,072 (120)2,752 (120)320 (−13 to 652)0.06
  Outpatient2,583 (50)2,511 (50)72 (−67 to 211)0.31
  Medication4,104 (53)3,845 (53)260 (112 to 407)0.001
  Total9,760 (164)9,108 (164)652 (196 to 1,107)0.005
 Other/multiple races
  Hospitalization3,472 (569)2,225 (539)1,248 (−288 to 2,784)0.11
  Outpatient2,549 (238)2,749 (225)−200 (−843 to 443)0.54
  Medication3,805 (252)3,551 (239)255 (−427 to 936)0.46
  Total9,827 (780)8,525 (738)1,303 (−803 to 3,408)0.22
  • Data are mean (SE) unless otherwise indicated. Included are results from ANCOVAs to assess the consistency of differences between intervention groups across subgroups. Negative differences occurred when costs among ILI participants exceeded those for DSE participants; positive differences occurred when costs among ILI participants were less than those for DSE participants. The DSE vs. ILI P values are for the mean difference between intervention groups within each strata. Interaction P values indicate whether the DSE vs. ILI differences were similar among subgroups.

  • †Weighted ANCOVA.