Table 1

Baseline characteristics by antidiabetes treatment in the CPRD

Metformin mono-txMetformin combo-txSulfonylurea mono-txTZDs mono-txOther OHA mono-txOther OHA combo-txInsulin mono-txInsulin combo-tx
n = 51,484n = 20,967n = 18,264n = 292n = 263n = 426n = 1,723n = 2,401
Sex
 Male28,893 (56.1)11,437 (54.6)10,578 (57.9)170 (58.2)156 (59.3)246 (57.7)979 (56.8)1,330 (55.4)
 Female22,591 (43.9)9,530 (45.4)7,686 (42.1)122 (41.8)107 (40.7)180 (42.3)744 (43.2)1,071 (44.6)
Age, years
 35–499,024 (17.5)4,329 (20.7)1,901 (10.4)38 (13.0)45 (17.1)71 (16.7)547 (31.8)767 (31.9)
 50–6422,086 (42.9)9,120 (43.5)6,327 (34.6)120 (41.1)111 (42.2)162 (38.0)641 (37.2)941 (39.2)
 65–7917,616 (34.2)6,503 (31.0)7,946 (43.5)112 (38.4)91 (34.6)160 (37.6)469 (27.2)609 (25.4)
 ≥802,758 (5.4)1,015 (4.8)2,090 (11.5)22 (7.5)16 (6.1)33 (7.7)66 (3.8)84 (3.5)
BMI, kg/m2
 <18.546 (0.1)36 (0.2)124 (0.7)2 (0.7)3 (1.1)3 (0.7)11 (0.6)37 (1.5)
 18.5–24.94,037 (7.8)2,112 (10.1)4,435 (24.3)49 (16.8)42 (16.0)125 (29.3)306 (17.8)563 (23.5)
 25–29.916,321 (31.7)6,485 (30.9)6,797 (37.2)105 (36.0)103 (39.2)142 (33.3)460 (26.7)638 (26.6)
 ≥3029,098 (56.5)11,024 (52.6)3,833 (21.0)128 (43.8)94 (35.7)109 (25.6)468 (27.2)932 (38.8)
 Unknown1,982 (3.9)1,310 (6.2)3,075 (16.8)8 (2.7)21 (8.0)47 (11.1)478 (27.7)231 (9.6)
Smoking
 Never21,214 (41.2)8,052 (38.4)6,514 (35.7)135 (46.2)93 (35.4)168 (39.4)547 (31.8)811 (33.8)
 Former18,225 (35.4)7,075 (33.7)4,194 (23.0)108 (37.0)57 (21.7)118 (27.7)379 (22.0)734 (30.6)
 Current8,389 (16.3)3,545 (16.9)2,53 (13.8)42 (14.4)41 (15.6)56 (13.2)283 (16.4)516 (21.5)
 Unknown3,656 (7.1)2,295 (11.0)5,026 (27.5)7 (2.4)72 (27.3)84 (19.7)514 (29.8)340 (14.1)
Alcohol
 Never8,547 (16.6)3,638 (17.4)2,868 (15.7)45 (15.4)45 (17.1)71 (16.7)215 (12.5)390 (16.2)
 Former1,426 (2.8)575 (2.7)283 (1.6)6 (2.0)4 (1.5)10 (2.3)50 (2.9)95 (3.9)
 Current29,427 (57.1)10,641 (50.7)8,056 (44.1)169 (57.9)129 (49.1)190 (44.6)595 (34.5)1,108 (46.2)
 Unknown12,084 (23.5)6,113 (29.2)7,057 (38.6)72 (24.7)85 (32.3)155 (36.4)863 (50.1)808 (33.7)
Aspirin/NSAID use*
 No20,414 (39.7)9,027 (43.0)9,333 (51.1)114 (39.0)136 (51.7)211 (49.5)889 (51.6)1,057 (44.0)
 Sparse13,391 (26.0)5,829 (27.8)4,354 (23.8)65 (22.3)69 (26.2)110 (25.8)419 (24.3)717 (29.9)
 Medium11,382 (22.1)4,064 (19.4)3,124 (17.1)74 (25.3)31 (11.8)75 (17.6)319 (18.5)423 (17.6)
 Frequent6,297 (12.2)2,047 (9.8)1,453 (8.0)39 (13.4)27 (10.3)30 (7.1)96 (5.6)204 (8.5)
Statin use*
 No19,352 (37.6)9,709 (46.3)13,422 (73.5)81 (27.7)178 (67.7)249 (58.5)1,125 (65.3)1,238 (51.6)
 Sparse10,783 (20.9)4,651 (22.2)1,758 (9.6)74 (25.3)28 (10.6)66 (15.5)283 (16.4)585 (24.4)
 Medium13,54 (26.3)4,334 (20.7)1,991 (10.9)79 (27.1)27 (10.3)79 (18.5)233 (13.5)397 (16.5)
 Frequent7,809 (15.2)2,273 (10.8)1,093 (6.0)58 (19.9)30 (11.4)32 (7.5)82 (4.8)181 (7.5)
Hormone use*
 No19,193 (85.0)7,830 (82.2)6,841 (89.0)106 (86.9)91 (85.0)149 (82.8)624 (83.9)821 (76.7)
 Sparse1,289 (5.7)633 (6.6)316 (4.1)5 (4.1)5 (4.7)10 (5.6)54 (7.3)89 (8.3)
 Medium1,389 (6.1)697 (7.3)341 (4.4)6 (4.9)8 (7.5)16 (8.9)52 (6.9)115 (10.7)
 Frequent720 (3.2)370 (3.9)188 (2.5)5 (4.1)3 (2.8)5 (2.7)14 (1.9)46 (4.3)
Diabetes duration, days
 Median (IQR)99 (1–618)35 (0–360)54 (0–414)259 (5–868)206 (6–765)30 (0–347)18 (0–105)30 (0–347)
 Missing, %5.68.117.09.214.815.639.08.7
First year of therapy
 Median (IQR)2005 (2003–2007)2004 (2001–2007)2000 (1996–2002)2005 (2004–2006)2000 (1998–2003)2002 (1999–2004)2001 (1997–2004)2004 (2001–2007)
  • Figures are n (%) unless otherwise specified. Combo-tx, combination therapy; IQR, interquartile range; mono-tx, monotherapy; TZDs, thiazolidinediones.

  • *Based on the percentile distribution of the number of prescriptions as no use, sparse use (1–10% of all prescriptions), medium use (10–50% of all prescriptions), and frequent use (>50% of all prescriptions). The exact distributional cut points were use of aspirin or NSAIDs: no, sparse [1–5 prescriptions], medium [6–16 prescriptions], frequent use [>16 prescriptions]; use of statins: no, sparse [1–6 prescriptions], medium [7–15 prescriptions], frequent use [>15 prescriptions]; use of exogenous hormones in women: no, sparse [1–2 prescriptions], medium [3–7 prescriptions], frequent use [>7 prescriptions].

  • †Exogenous hormone use (oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy) in women.

  • ‡From time of diabetes diagnosis to time of first antidiabetes treatment prescription.