Table 2

Standardized polytomous logistic regression estimates for ORs of each glucose status group

ORs (95% CIs)P for difference
Normal glucose
(n = 779)Isolated IGT
(n = 128)Isolated IFG
(n = 171)IGT and IFG
(n = 102)Diabetes
(n = 83)
β-Cell dysfunctiona
 Model 11.000.54 (0.30–0.97)3.46 (2.43–4.93)2.22 (1.42–3.49)6.37 (3.96–10.2)<0.0001
 Model 21.000.55 (0.30–0.98)3.64 (2.54–5.22)2.51 (1.58–4.00)7.37 (4.43–12.2)<0.0001
 Model 31.000.83 (0.45–1.52)5.04 (3.42–7.41)4.54 (2.72–7.57)19.0 (10.3–35.0)<0.0001
 Model 41.000.86 (0.46–1.59)7.66 (4.96–11.8)9.85 (5.29–18.3)110 (43.2–279)<0.0001
Insulin resistanceb
 Model 11.002.44 (1.61–3.69)2.64 (1.83–3.81)5.85 (3.79–9.03)8.05 (4.97–13.0)<0.0001
 Model 21.002.58 (1.69–3.93)2.70 (1.86–3.94)5.48 (3.51–8.57)8.08 (4.87–13.4)<0.0001
 Model 31.001.36 (0.86–2.17)2.17 (1.43–3.28)3.37 (2.06–5.50)4.20 (2.42–7.28)<0.0001
 Model 41.001.26 (0.26–6.22)5.61 (1.74–18.1)10.0 (2.69–37.6)26.6 (3.95–180)0.0004
Decreased insulin sensitivityc
 Model 11.002.50 (1.64–3.82)2.55 (1.75–3.72)5.53 (3.57–8.54)7.69 (4.76–12.4)<0.0001
 Model 21.002.62 (1.70–4.02)2.59 (1.76–3.80)5.14 (3.28–8.05)7.55 (4.56–12.5)<0.0001
 Model 31.001.37 (0.85–2.20)2.04 (1.34–3.12)3.07 (1.87–5.04)3.90 (2.25–6.75)<0.0001
 Model 41.001.11 (0.22–5.59)0.75 (0.23–2.42)0.72 (0.20–2.63)1.46 (0.23–9.20)0.9282
  • Model 1 was adjusted for age. Model 2 was adjusted for age, time postpartum, sitting time, dietary fiber, and monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, and saturated fat intake (continuous variables for above all variables) and education, family history of diabetes, smoking, passive smoking, alcohol drinking, and leisure-time physical activity (categorical variables for above all variables). Model 3 was adjusted for variables in model 2 and for BMI. Model 4 was adjusted for variables in model 3 and for decreased insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance (in β-cell dysfunction analysis), β-cell dysfunction and decreased insulin sensitivity (in insulin resistance analysis), and β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance (in decreased insulin sensitivity analysis).

  • aβ-Cell dysfunction is defined as the lower quartile of HOMA-%β.

  • bInsulin resistance is defined as the upper quartile of HOMA-IR.

  • cDecreased insulin sensitivity is defined as the lower quartile of HOMA-%S.