Table 3—

Insulin fractions and insulin secretion related to types of hyperglycemia adjusted by sex, age, and BMI

NGTIFGIGTCGI
Insulin (pmol/l)*
 Fasting59.0 (40.0)79.0 (56.5)80.0 (63.5)87.0 (53.8)
 2-h OGTT230 (174)272 (205)478 (388)550 (387)
C-peptide (pmol/l)
 Fasting1,070 ± 4431,380 ± 5121,305 ± 6281,416 ± 486
 2-h OGTT (pmol/l)3,521 ± 1,3104,070 ± 1,4135,063 ± 1,316&5,192 ± 1,423&
Proinsulin (pmol/l)*
 Fasting1.45 (1.16)2.1 (1.93)1.7 (1.82)2.31 (2.40)$
 2-h OGTT8.87 (6.37)12.02 (8.02)14.49 (10.39)17.97 (14.39)&$
Inc insulin 30 min (pmol/l)**367 ± 268354 ± 266362 ± 288337 ± 278
ΔINS/PG30 ratio × 10−814.3 ± 19.211.1 ± 10.9§9.1 ± 6.1§9.0 ± 21.1§#
AUC insulin during OGTT (pmol/l)46,893 ± 33,00456,983 ± 37,68763,602 ± 45,50270,224 ± 41,735&
AUC insulin 30–120 min during OGTT (pmol/l)39,378 ± 29,24148,963 ± 33,85455,512 ± 40,58362,203 ± 37,729&
AUC insulin to AUC PG ratio × 10−8**53.1 ± 31.954.6 ± 32.555.2 ± 37.054.8 ± 31.1
Inc AUC insulin to Inc AUC PG ratio × 10−821.9 ± 51.917.1 ± 30.112.2 ± 8.4§#12.0 ± 7.4§#
AUC free fatty acids during OGTT (pmol/l)19.2 ± 8.222.3 ± 10.828.5 ± 11.3&34.3 ± 33.4&$
  • Data are means ± SD, unless otherwise noted.

  • *

    * Median (interquartile range), Kruskal-Wallis H test P < 0.0001;

  • **

    ** ANOVA P < 0.05 for trend;

  • ANOVA P < 0.05 vs. NGT;

  • &

    & ANOVA P < 0.05 vs. IFG;

  • $

    $ ANOVA P < 0.05 vs. IGT;

  • §

    § ANOVA with logarithmic value P < 0.001 vs. NGT;

  • ANOVA with logarithmic value P < 0.05 vs. IGT;

  • #

    # ANOVA with logarithmic value P < 0.05 vs. IFG. Inc, incremental.