Table 1—

Clinical characteristics

All subjectsStage of nephropathy
Normoalbuminuria (DN0)Microalbuminuria (DN1)Macroalbuminuria (DN2)
n61635516695
M/F (% male)403/213 (65)225/130 (63)110/56 (66)68/27 (72)
Age (years)60.5 ± 0.459.0 ± 0.561.9 ± 0.9*63.4 ± 1.2*
Duration (years)11.9 ± 0.410.0 ± 0.413.6 ± 0.8*16.3 ± 1.1*
BMI (kg/m2)23.3 ± 0.223.1 ± 0.223.4 ± 0.323.7 ± 0.4
Hypertension/non-HT (% HT)254/362 (41)113/242 (32)82/84 (49)*59/36 (62)*
HbA1c (%)7.17 ± 0.067.06 ± 0.077.24 ± 0.127.48 ± 0.16*
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)196.2 ± 1.6192.5 ± 1.9199.9 ± 3.5*203.7 ± 5.2*
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)54.9 ± 0.756.2 ± 0.953.7 ± 1.652.0 ± 1.8*
Triglycerides (mg/dl)165.7 ± 7.4146.0 ± 6.0184.6 ± 15.2*206.6 ± 32.6*
Therapy (diet/OA/insulin)93/281/24264/178/11320/70/76*9/33/53*
Therapy (%)(15/46/39)(18/50/32)(12/42/46)(9/35/56)
NDR/SDR/PPDR and PDR404/116/96272/55/2887/41/38*45/20/30*
Retinopathy (%)(66/19/15)(77/15/8)(52/25/23)(47/21/32)
Serum creatinine (mg/dl)0.78 ± 0.010.71 ± 0.010.79 ± 0.02*1.03 ± 0.04*
ACR268.0 ± 36.810.9 ± 0.4107.2 ± 6.0*1597.2 ± 188.9*
  • Data are the mean ± SE or n (%).

  • *

    * P < 0.05 vs. DN0;

  • P < 0.05 vs. DN1; HT, hypertensive; NDR, nondiabetic retinopathy; SDR, simple diabetic retinopathy; PPDR, preproliferative diabetic retinopathy; PDR, proliferative diabetic retinopathy; OA, oral administration