Table 2—

Source of health resource use and price estimates

Cost componentSource of use dataSource of price dataUnit price (2002 dollars)
Institutional care
 Hospital day1999 NIS1998 MEPS2,385
 Nursing home day1999 NNHSKiplinger (5)169
Outpatient care
 Office-based physician encounter1998–2000 NAMCS1998 MEPS160
  Emergency department visit1998–2000 NHAMCS1998 MEPS452
 Ambulance service1998–2000 NHAMCSAAA247
 Hospital outpatient and free-standing ambulatory surgical center visit1998–2000 NHAMCS1998 MEPS561
 Outpatient medication1998–2000 NAMCS, 1998–2000 NHAMCS1998 MEPS47
 Home health visit1998, 2000 NHHCS, 1998–2000 NHIS1998 MEPS89
 Hospice care day1998, 2000 NHHCSHospice Association of America (6)107
Indirect costs
 Lost workday1998–2000 NHISBLS168
 Restricted activity day1998–2000 NHISBLS67
 Premature mortality (lost lifetime earnings)Social Security Administration (7)BLS116,928
 Permanent disability (lost annual earnings)2002 Social Security Administration Data (8)BLS42,462
Supplies
 Insulin use (supplies include glucose monitoring supplies, insulin delivery supplies, and insulin) and average annual cost of use1998–2000 NHIS, 2002 The Source Prescription Audit, LifeClinic (9, 10), Fertig et al. (11), Frost and Sullivan (12)2002 Red Book (13), 2002 The Source Prescription Audit, Scott-Levin, 2002 AllegroMedical et al. (14), 2002 MiniMed (15)1,778
 Use of oral agents and average annual cost of use1998–2000 NHIS, Luna and Feinglos (16), 2002 The Source Prescription Audit, CDC (17), NIDDK (18)2002 Red Book (13)666
  • American Ambulance Association (AAA) estimate of the national average cost for a basic life support transport, adjusted to 2002 dollars;

  • actual estimate varies by age-group and sex;

  • estimated annual cost per user.

  • CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; NAMCS, National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey; NHAMCS, National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey; NHHCS, National Home and Hospital Care Survey; NIS, National Inpatient Sample; NIDDK, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; NNHS, National Nursing Home Survey.