Table 1—

Baseline distributions of other risk factors for type 2 diabetes according to quintiles of sucrose intake

Quintiles of sucrose intake
1 (lowest)2345 (highest)
Median intake (g/day)25.833.639.345.857.2
Age53.3 ± 6.653.6 ± 6.853.9 ± 7.054.2 ± 7.154.4 ± 7.4
Smoking (%)
 Current17.612.110.910.514.0
 Past41.537.534.534.232.0
 Never41.050.454.655.454.0
Exercise (%)
 Rarely/never39.736.735.637.040.5
 <1 time/week19.820.120.020.019.8
 1–3 times/week30.532.433.631.429.3
 ≥4 times/week9.910.810.711.610.7
Alcohol (%)
 Rarely/never32.039.843.048.656.7
 1–3 drinks/month10.412.614.414.414.4
 1–6 drinks/week34.835.834.531.225.1
 ≥1 drinks/day22.811.98.25.83.8
Postmenopausal (%)51.953.753.956.356.8
Hormone replacement treatment (%)
 Never48.646.648.147.747.5
 Past9.910.69.69.610.7
 Current41.642.842.342.741.8
Mean BMI (kg/m2)26.226.025.825.825.5
Multivitamin use (%)27.729.430.029.729.8
History of hypertension25.425.024.325.025.4
History of high cholesterol24.725.725.628.129.1
Family History of diabetes24.825.424.824.324.3
Total energy (kcal)1,696 ± 5271,750 ± 5191,760 ± 5261,739 ± 5381,687 ± 558
Total fat (g)61.5 ± 12.458.8 ± 11.457.4 ± 11.156.4 ± 11.054.0 ± 11.6
Saturated fat (g)21.2 ± 5.320.0 ± 4.619.5 ± 4.519.2 ± 4.518.4 ± 4.8
Carbohydrate (g)194.1 ± 32.2213.2 ± 28.1223.2 ± 27.8231.6 ± 28.1247.5 ± 31.1
Dietary GI74.1 ± 5.274.7 ± 4.475.0 ± 4.375.4 ± 4.376.5 ± 4.7
Proteins (g)89.4 ± 15.085.6 ± 12.681.9 ± 11.877.9 ± 11.670.4 ± 12.1
Dietary cholesterol (mg)255.9 ± 82.2236.0 ± 67.5224.3 ± 63.8213.1 ± 62.8194.9 ± 63.5
Dietary folate (mcg)419.6 ± 227.2435.4 ± 219.6436.7 ± 217.6433.0 ± 225.1417.6 ± 231.5
  • Data are means ± SD, unless otherwise indicated. All covariate values are according to the quintiles of sucrose intake. All the means of nutrients are energy adjusted. History of hypertension was defined as ever diagnosed by physician or self-reported blood pressure >140/90; history of high cholesterol and family history of diabetes were self-reported and validated in a subsample. All the means of nutrients are energy adjusted. Model 1: age and smoking adjusted. Model 2: age, smoking, BMI, vigorous exercise, alcohol use, postmenopausal hormone use, multivitamin use, history of hypertension, high cholesterol, and family history of diabetes.