Table 2

Average annual rates of medical service use and average annual costs over follow-up for participants grouped by intervention assignment

CategoryDSEILIDifference (SE)Percent decrease (increase) in useP value*
Per-participant average annual medical service use
 Hospitalizations0.199 (0.006)0.177 (0.006)0.023 (0.008)110.004
  Bone0.009 (0.001)0.008 (0.001)0.001 (0.001)110.20
  Cancer0.013 (0.002)0.012 (0.001)0.0005 (0.0024)40.84
  Cardiovascular0.066 (0.003)0.059 (0.002)0.008 (0.004)110.04
  Metabolism0.010 (0.001)0.008 (0.001)0.002 (0.001)200.07
  Pulmonary0.011 (0.001)0.008 (0.001)0.003 (0.001)270.05
  Renal0.004 (0.001)0.003 (0.001)0.001 (0.001)250.22
  Other0.086 (0.003)0.079 (0.003)0.008 (0.004)80.05
 Days in hospital0.81 (0.03)0.69 (0.03)0.11 (0.04)150.01
 Outpatient services
  Visits11.75 (0.11)11.50 (0.11)0.25 (0.16)20.13
  Rehabilitation center/LTC (%)2.9 (0.17)2.5 (0.17)0.4 (0.20)140.05
  Home care (%)7.3 (0.26)6.1 (0.26)1.2 (0.37)160.001
 Medications4.96 (0.05)4.65 (0.05)0.31 (0.06)6<0.0001
  Diabetes1.45 (0.01)1.25 (0.01)0.19 (0.02)14<0.0001
  Lipid lowering0.65 (0.01)0.62 (0.01)0.04 (0.01)50.002
  Antihypertensive1.24 (0.02)1.19 (0.02)0.06 (0.02)40.02
  Other cardiovascular disease0.11 (0.005)0.10 (0.005)0.01 (0.01)90.14
  Psychiatric/neurologic0.29 (0.01)0.32 (0.01)−0.03 (0.01)(10)0.02
  Musculoskeletal0.20 (0.01)0.21 (0.01)−0.003 (0.01)(5)0.59
  Other1.02 (0.02)0.97 (0.02)0.05 (0.03)50.06
Per-participant average annual medical service costs
 Hospitalization2,789 (96)2,506 (96)283 (136)100.04
  Bone136 (16)120 (16)16 (23)120.49
  Cancer219 (31)213 (31)6 (43)30.89
  Cardiovascular1,024 (54)948 (54)77 (77)30.32
  Metabolism123 (11)91 (11)32 (16)80.04
  Pulmonary137 (19)90 (19)47 (27)260.08
  Renal45 (7)32 (7)12 (10)270.22
  Other1,106 (47)1,012 (46)94 (66)80.16
 Outpatient services2,344 (41)2,313 (40)31 (57)10.59
  Visits1,513 (15)1,502 (15)11 (22)10.61
  Tests and procedures510 (7)502 (7)8 (10)20.48
  Rehabilitation center/LTC198 (29)201 (29)−3 (41)(2)0.93
  Home care123 (10)107 (10)16 (13)130.24
 Medications3,784 (44)3,503 (43)281 (61)7<0.0001
  Diabetes1,226 (18)1,012 (18)214 (25)17<0.0001
  Lipid lowering841 (12)793 (12)48 (17)60.005
  Antihypertensive436 (7)411 (7)25 (10)60.01
  Other cardiovascular disease111 (5)96 (5)15 (8)140.06
  Psychiatric/neurologic329 (13)367 (13)−38 (19)(12)0.04
  Musculoskeletal89 (4)96 (4)−7 (6)(8)0.23
  Other752 (19)727 (19)25 (27)30.35
Total annual cost8,916 (133)8,321 (133)595 (188)70.002
  • Data are mean (SE) unless otherwise indicated. LTC, long-term care.

  • *Weighted ANCOVA.

  • †Metabolism includes hospitalizations for nondiabetic endocrine disorders (e.g., thyroid); fluid, electrolyte, and nutrition disorders; and other metabolic disorders (e.g., gout).