Table 2—

Subject characteristics in the monophasic and biphasic group

BiphasicUnclassifiedMonophasicP*
NGT/IGT173/20103/6209/400.079
Sex (M/F)60/13332/77120/1290.0003
Age (years)34.3 ± 0.836.3 ± 1.237.6 ± 0.80.0043
BMI (kg/m2)25.6 ± 0.425.5 ± 0.527.8 ± 0.40.0003
WHR0.84 ± 0.010.84 ± 0.010.87 ± 0.01<0.0001
Family history of diabetes (non-first degree/first degree)107/8166/41115/1160.15
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)4.91 ± 0.034.80 ± 0.065.12 ± 0.040.0003
Plasma glucose at 120 min (mmol/l)5.95 ± 0.125.42 ± 0.135.85 ± 0.100.53
GlucoseAUC (mmol · l−1 · h−1)12.3 ± 0.212.4 ± 0.215.1 ± 0.2<0.0001
Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/l)48 ± 249 ± 363 ± 40.0005
Plasma insulin at 120 min (pmol/l)320 ± 20274 ± 29350 ± 190.30
InsulinAUC (pmol · l−1 · h−1)620 ± 32624 ± 44845 ± 37<0.0001
Fasting plasma glucagon (pg/ml)62.3 ± 2.462.0 ± 3.766.9 ± 2.00.14
Plasma glucagon at 120 min (pg/ml)53.5 ± 2.052.8 ± 3.054.5 ± 1.50.67
GlucagonAUC (pmol/h)117.8 ± 3.1112.9 ± 4.1117.8 ± 3.10.45
HbA1c (%)5.12 ± 0.035.10 ± 0.035.20 ± 0.030.045
ISI (ref. 3) (units)21.5 ± 0.823.7 ± 1.316.2 ± 0.6<0.0001
ISI (ref. 2) (units)0.100 ± 0.0020.101 ± 0.0030.084 ± 0.002<0.0001
HOMA-IR1.74 ± 0.081.76 ± 0.132.50 ± 0.150.0001
Estimated first-phase insulin secretion (pmol/l)1,148 ± 421,093 ± 521,073 ± 420.013
Insulinogenic index46 ± 242 ± 340 ± 20.036
HOMA-IS4,414 ± 2753,541 ± 7775,328 ± 3260.13
Disposition index21,541 ± 72921,549 ± 98414,021 ± 503<0.0001
  • Data are means ± SEM.

  • *

    * χ2 test monophasic vs. biphasic;

  • glucagon data were available in a subgroup of 265 subjects. HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance; HOMA-IS, HOMA for insulin secretion.