Table 1—

Metabolic and nonmetabolic clinical and biochemical features in subjects with the metabolic syndrome by WHO criteria and in the control subjects

Control subjectsMetabolic syndromeP
n585303
Sex (% men)5249NS
Age (years)57.0 ± 11.162.6 ± 11.2<0.001
Smoking (cigarette/day)4.2 ± 8.04.0 ± 8.1NS
Alcohol (% >50 g/day)2321NS
Physical activity (score)4.5 ± 1.53.9 ± 1.6<0.001
Social status (% low)60680.020
BMI (kg/m2)24.1 ± 3.326.6 ± 4.2<0.001
WHR0.91 ± 0.070.93 ± 0.07<0.001
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)5.2 ± 0.46.3 ± 1.5<0.001
2-h glucose (mmol/l)4.7 (3.8–5.7)7.2 (4.9–9.2)<0.001
Fasting insulin (pmol/l)59 (44–86)134 (88–204)<0.001
2-h insulin (pmol/l)194 (122–313)448 (282–730)<0.001
HOMA-IR1.9 (1.4–2.8)5.1 (3.7–8.1)<0.001
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.5 ± 0.93.6 ± 1.2NS
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.5 ± 0.31.4 ± 0.4<0.001
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.2 (0.8–1.6)1.7 (1.2–2.5)<0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)141 ± 20154 ± 22<0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)87 ± 1092 ± 10<0.001
Albumin-to-creatinine ratio (mg/g)6.0 (3.7–134)7.5 (4.1–178)0.002
  • Data are means ± SD, geometric mean (interquartile range), and %. P for sex, age, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, and social status are unadjusted. All other P values are adjusted for sex, age, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, and social status.