Table 1—

Changes in physiological and biochemical variables

VariablenBaseline meanMean change, baseline to follow-upBetween-group difference in change
Exercise time (min)
 Experimental309.42 ± 3.281.56 (0.24 to 3.20)*
 Control3110.36 ± 4.39−0.28 (−1.30 to 0.37)56.6 to 231.5*
Peak gradient (%)
 Experimental308.38 ± 4.62.4 (1.06 to 3.70)*
 Control319.2 ± 5.7−0.14 (−1.07 to 0.78)0.94 to 4.1*
Peak Vo2 (ml/min)
 Experimental281,925 ± 684−30.8 (−139.1 to 77.6)
 Control301,956 ± 600−185.8 (−304.1 to −67.5)*−1.8 to 311.9
Peak Vo2 (ml · kg−1 · min−1)
 Experimental2820.1 ± 5.9−0.04 (−1.06 to 0.99)
 Control3020.6 ± 5.5−1.6 (−3.0 to −0.28)−1.06 to 0.99
BMI (kg/m2)
 Experimental3235.4 ± 7.80.18 (−1.22 to 1.58)
 Control3133.7 ± 5.70.82 (−0.54 to 2.20)−1.7 to 0.3
Systolic BP (mmHg)
 Experimental32149.4 ± 20.2−3.67 (−15.53 to 8.20)
 Control31143.0 ± 19.57.14 (−4.51 to 18.80)−24.7 to −2.0
Diastolic BP (mmHg)
 Experimental3285.6 ± 9.7−3.97 (−9.9 to 1.96)
 Control3182.0 ± 12.5−1.34 (−7.27 to 4.59)−9.8 to 1.7
HbAlc (%)
 Experimental268.3 ± 1.3−0.31 (−1.02 to 0.40)
 Control248.8 ± 1.50.37 (−0.35 to 1.10)−1.23 to −0.07
Cholesterol (mmol/l)
 Experimental234.8 ± 1.1−0.07 (−0.38 to 0.23)
 Control244.72 ± 1.20.10 (−0.22 to 0.41)−0.55 to 0.03
HDL-C (mmol/l)
 Experimental221.14 ± 0.290.05 (−0.07 to 0.17)
 Control211.12 ± 0.350.03 (−0.09 to 0.15)−0.09 to 0.13
LDL-C (mmol/l)
 Experimental212.73 ± 0.99−0.10 (−0.31 to 0.10)
 Control192.52 ± 0.640.01 (−0.21 to 0.23)−0.32 to 0.02
Triglycerides (mmol/l)
 Experimental232.1 ± 0.990.20 (−0.44 to 0.84)
 Control232.7 ± 3.080.07 (−0.57 to 0.72)−0.42 to 0.56
Fibrinogen (mg/dl)
 Experimental22310 ± 73.0−3.59 (−25.48 to 18.30)
 Control21315 ± 54.721.53 (0.01 to 43.06)−57.2 to −4.3
  • Data are means ± SD, mean (95% CI), and 95% CI.

  • *

    * P < 0.01;

  • P < 0.05.