Table 3—

ORs for incident carotid atherosclerosis and CHD associated with the various components of the metabolic syndrome considered separately or with the syndrome (by WHO criteria) considered as a single entity (see legend for description of models)

Incident carotid plaquesIncident carotid stenosisIncident CHD
Model 1
n791313888
 Impaired glucose regulation (IFG, IGT, type 2 diabetes)1.3 (0.8–1.9)2.3 (1.2–4.3)*1.5 (0.7–3.0)
 Insulin resistance (top quartile HOMA-IR)1.4 (0.9–2.0)0.7 (0.4–1.6)1.0 (0.5–2.2)
 Central obesity1.0 (0.6–1.6)0.7 (0.4–1.5)1.6 (0.7–3.5)
 Dyslipidemia0.9 (0.6–1.3)2.3 (1.2–4.3)*1.4 (0.7–2.7)
 Hypertension1.2 (0.8–1.7)0.9 (0.4–1.8)3.1 (1.2–8.2)*
 Microalbuminuria1.3 (0.8–2.0)1.7 (0.8–3.3)1.1 (0.5–2.5)
Model 2
n791313888
 Metabolic syndrome1.5 (1.1–2.1)2.4 (1.3–4.1)*2.3 (1.2–4.3)*
Model 3
n443133491
 Impaired glucose regulation (IFG and/or IGT)1.6 (0.8–3.4)1.3 (0.3–4.7)1.7 (0.3–6.1)
 Insulin resistance (top quartile HOMA-IR)1.8 (0.9–4.1)2.2 (0.6–8.9)1.4 (0.4–7.8)
 Central obesity0.9 (0.5–1.7)0.8 (0.2–3.1)1.1 (0.3–4.4)
 Dyslipidemia0.8 (0.4–1.3)1.0 (0.3–3.3)1.3 (0.4–4.7)
 Mild hypertension1.1 (0.6–1.8)0.5 (0.2–1.6)2.5 (0.6–11.1)
 Microalbuminuria1.3 (0.6–2.9)0.5 (0.1–2.1)2.4 (0.5–10.7)
Model 4
n443133491
 Metabolic syndrome2.0 (1.2–3.4)*2.0 (1.0–3.8)3.7 (1.2–11.6)
  • Data are odds ratio (95% CI). All models include sex, age, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, social status, LDL cholesterol, baseline carotid atherosclerosis, or baseline CHD. Model 1: components of the syndrome considered separately but entered simultaneously into the same equation. Model 2: metabolic syndrome considered as a single entity into the equation. Model 3: components of the syndrome considered separately but entered simultaneously into the same equation. Subjects with diabetes and definite hypertension excluded. Model 4: metabolic syndrome considered as a single entity into the equation. Subjects with diabetes and definite hypertension were excluded.

  • *

    * P < 0.01,

  • P < 0.05.