Table 1—

Characteristics for women with type 1 diabetes and stillbirth categorized according to possible cause of stillbirth

Case1Age (years)White’s classDuration of diabetes (year)SmokingGA at first visit (week)Pre-pregnancy HbA1c (%)Early HbA1c (%)Late HbA1c (%)GA (week)Size at birth (SD)Major malformationsPossible cause of stillbirth
127C10Yes97.37.730SGA (−5.3)NoGrowth retardation
221C10Yes76.37.433LGA (2.7)NoChorioamnionitis
4a36B9Yes25(6.2)234LGA (2.4)MicrocephalyAbruptio placentae
826F13Yes22(7.9)226AGA (−1.2)No + cardiomyopathyKetoacidosis
9a25C6Yes126.06.127AGA (0.1)Ketoacidosis
1731F19Yes129.725SGA (−5.7)FacialGrowth retardation
20a
35
B
6
Yes
9
7.2
7.3

27
SGA (−4.6)
No
Growth retardation
4b39C12Yes137.833LGA (1.5)Sacral dysgenesis + severe cardiomyopathyMalformation
625F12Yes88.77.85.538AGA (−0.6)Cardiac4 + severe cardiomyopathyMalformation
719C9Yes118.128LGA (2.5)Cardiac4Malformation
9b28C8Yes116.87.66.036LGA (2.3)Cardiac4Malformation
1929F20No86.224SGA (−4.7)NoMultiple placental infarctions
21
27
B
1

11

9.2
8.6
37
LGA (3.2)

Umbilical cord
325C6No711.58.636LGA (1.5)NoSuboptimal glycemic control
524F13No267.735AGA (1.2)NoSuboptimal glycemic control
1027C14Yes99.210.235LGA (5.1)NoSuboptimal glycemic control
1127B257.97.87.136AGA (0.9)NoSuboptimal glycemic control
1231F19Yes119.59.710.237AGA (−0.3)NoSuboptimal glycemic control
1340C10Yes1011.09.48.535LGA (2.1)Suboptimal glycemic control
1528D23No58.88.69.035LGA (3.6)NoSuboptimal glycemic control
1818C6No107.97.98.037LGA (5.1)NoSuboptimal glycemic control
22
34
D
22
Yes
13
9.0
8.3
7.7
37
LGA (1.6)

Suboptimal glycemic control
1431B9No107.97.36.836AGA (−0.2)Unexplained
1620D13Yes107.56.738LGA (3.7)NoUnexplained
20b37B8No137.07.16.534AGA (−1.0)NoUnexplained
Stillbirth group
Median327[59% B+C]11[64%]107.97.98.035[52%][30%]
(range)(20–40)[41% D+F](1–23)(5–26)(6.0–11.0)(6.1–11.5)(5.5–10.2)(24–38)
Reference group
Median30[52% B+C]14[29%]7.4 (n = 225)7.0 (n = 219)6.3 (n = 185)37[50%][3%]
(range)(19–43)[48% D+F](½–35)(5.0–11.6)(4.4–9.9)(4.9–9.8)
  • Case number represents the chronological appearance of the stillbirth. Dotted lines separate the different groups of categorization of stillbirths (for details see text).

  • 1

    1 Cases with superscript a and b: first and second stillbirth for same mother.

  • 2

    2 The only HbA1c measured in pregnancy was at first attendance in second trimester (not included in calculation of median).

  • 3

    3 Only first stillbirth included when calculating median.

  • 4

    4 Case 6, truncus arteriosus communis; case 7, aplasia of left ventricle and persistent left superior vena cava; case 9b, coarctatio aorta and myocardial hypertrophy.