Table 1—

Characteristics of subgroups with or without diabetes or insulin resistance

1: Diabetes with insulin resistance2: Diabetes without insulin resistance3: Insulin resistance without diabetes4: All others
n3991513631,370
BMI (kg/m2)31.5 ± 5.427.5 ± 3.931.6 ± 4.627.7 ± 4.1
Waist (cm)108 ± 13100 ± 11109 ± 1199 ± 11
Glucose (mg/dl)160 ± 37120 ± 25107 ± 1097 ± 11
Insulin (μU/ml)*44 ± 4826 ± 750 ± 1627 ± 7
HOMA-IR*16.6 ± 22.28.1 ± 1.713.0 ± 4.36.5 ± 1.8
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)30.8 ± 5.230.9 ± 5.331.2 ± 5.432.0 ± 5.2
Triglycerides (mg/dl)*164 ± 72138 ± 64172 ± 67143 ± 65
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)108 ± 22110 ± 24110 ± 23113 ± 22
  • Data are mean or median

  • *

    * ± SD for subjects not being treated with insulin who had fasting values of lipids, insulin, and glucose measured at baseline. Diabetes was defined by history or by a fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dl. Insulin resistance was defined by the upper tertile level of HOMA-IR, which was associated with a significant increase in cardiovascular events (results). All values in subgroups 1 or 3 are different from subgroup 4 (at P < 0.01), whereas only glucose, HOMA-IR, and HDL cholesterol values in subgroup 2 are different from subgroup 4 (at P < 0.01). All values are different between subgroups 1 and 2 (P < 0.001) and between subgroups 2 and 3 (P < 0.001) except for LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol.