Table 1—

Reported prevalence of CAN

AuthorDate of publicationDiabetes typeSubjects (n)Test(s) used% Abnormal
Sharpey-Schafer and Taylor (26)1960337Valsalva maneuver21
Ewing et al. (27)1974Mixed with autonomic symptoms124Handgrip test18
Morley et al. (28)1977Adult diabetic patients70Valsalva maneuver24
Heart rate variation11
Hilsted and Jensen (29)1979Insulin-treated126Heart rate variation40
Mackay et al. (30)1980287Heart rate variation30
Ewing et al. (31)1980Mixed with autonomic symptoms73Valsalva maneuver47
Postural BP45
Ewing et al. (32)1980Mixed with autonomic symptoms61Valsalva maneuver54
Postural BP
Hulper and Willms (33)198092Handgrip17
Dyrberg et al. (34)1981Insulin-dependent75Heart rate variation27
Valsalva maneuver17
Xueli et al. (35)1981Newly diagnosed non-insulin-dependentValsalva maneuver80
O’Brien et al. (36)1991Insulin-dependent506At least two of the following: heart rate variation in response to 1) rest 2) single deep breath 3) Valsalva maneuver or 4) standing17
Ziegler et al. (24)1992Newly diagnosed insulin-dependent130At least three of the following: CV of heart rate variation, low-and mid-frequency bands of spectral analysis, MCR, Valsalva maneuver, or lying-to-standing7.7
Ziegler et al. (24)1992Insulin-dependent647Greater than two of the following: coefficient of variation of heart rate variation, low- and mid-frequency bands of spectral analysis, MCR, Valsalva maneuver, or lying-to-standing25.3
Kennedy et al. (25)1995Insulin-dependent290Heart rate variation90
Valsalva maneuver88
DCCT Research Group (37)1998Insulin-dependent primary cohort 1–5 years’ duration; secondary cohort 1–15 years’ duration1,441Heart rate variation1.6–6.2
Valsalva maneuver5.5–6.3
Postural BP1.1
Any abnormality2.6–23
  • BP, blood pressure; MCR, mean circular resultant.