Table 4—

Medical contraindications to PRT

Cardiovascular contraindication
 Unstable angina, untreated severe left main coronary artery disease
 Angina, hypotension, or arrhythmias provoked by resistance training
 Acute myocardial infarction
 End-stage congestive heart failure (New York Heart Association Class IV)
 Severe valvular heart disease
 Malignant or unstable arrhythmias*
 Large or expanding aortic aneurysm
 Known cerebral aneurysm
 Acute deep venous thrombosis
 Acute pulmonary embolism or infarction
 Recent intracerebral or subdural hemorrhage
Musculoskeletal contraindications
 Significant exacerbation of musculoskeletal pain with resistance training
 Unstable or acutely injured joints, tendons, or ligaments
 Fracture within last 6 months (delayed union)
 Acute inflammatory joint disease
Other contraindications
 Rapidly progressive or unstable neurological disease
 Failure to thrive, terminal illness
 Uncontrolled systemic disease
 Symptomatic or large abdominal or inguinal hernias, hemorrhoids
 Severe dementia/behavioral disturbance
 Acute alcohol or drug intoxication
 Acute retinal bleeding/detachment/severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy
 Recent ophthalmic surgery
 Severe cognitive impairment
 Uncontrolled COPD/CAL
 Prosthesis instability
  • *

    * Ventricular tachycardia, complete heart block without pacemaker, atrial flutter, and junctional rhythms.

  • For example, uncontrolled diabetes (symptomatic hyper- or hypoglycemia; HbA1c > 10%), hypertension (untreated systolic BP >170 mmHg), thyroid disease, congestive heart failure, sepsis, acute illness, and fevers.

  • Laser, cataract extraction, retinal surgery, glaucoma surgery, etc. (collated from Fiatarone Singh [32]). COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CAL, chronic airways limitations.