Table 1

Phenotypic and metabolic characteristics of obese adolescents with (CAC+) vs. without CAC (CAC−)

CAC− (n = 45)CAC+ (n = 45)P value
Physical characteristics
 Male/female12/3314/31ns
 AA/white23/2221/24ns
 Smoking history (no/yes/not available)35/1/934/1/10ns
 Age (years)14.7 ± 0.315.3 ± 0.3ns
 BMI (kg/m2)32.8 ± 0.637.6 ± 0.8<0.001
 Fat mass (kg)37.8 ± 1.445.9 ± 1.7<0.001
 FFM (kg)46.1 ± 1.354.6 ± 1.7<0.001
 Body fat (%)43.6 ± 1.044.7 ± 0.8ns
 WC (cm)99.2 ± 1.6110.7 ± 2.0<0.001
 Total abdominal fat (cm2)539.1 ± 27.9 (n = 33)671.1 ± 32.0 (n = 32)0.003
 SAT (cm2)470.5 ± 24.5590.7 ± 27.80.002
 VAT (cm2)68.6 ± 5.580.3 ± 5.30.1
Vascular markers
 CAC score06.0 ± 0.9<0.001
 CAC volume (mm3)015.2 ± 2.1<0.001
 PWV (cm/s)663.0 ± 38.6 (n = 40)713.0 ± 51.5 (n = 33)0.14
 IMT (mm)0.52 ± 0.01 (n = 42)0.52 ± 0.01 (n = 43)ns
Metabolic parameters
 NGT/prediabetes/T2DM22/10/1315/17/13ns
 HbA1c (%)5.7 ± 0.15.8 ± 0.2ns
 HbA1c (mmol/mol)39.9 ± 1.140 ± 2.2ns
 Fasting glucose (mg/dL)94.7 ± 1.797.5 ± 2.9ns
 Fasting insulin (μU/mL)34.7 ± 4.738.1 ± 3.8ns
 Leptin (ng/mL)33.5 ± 2.539.0 ± 2.70.09
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL)159.8 ± 5.2150.2 ± 4.1ns
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)94.7 ± 4.291.3 ± 3.6ns
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)40.7 ± 1.438.5 ± 1.5ns
 Non–HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)119.1 ± 5.0111.7 ± 4.0ns
 Triglycerides (mg/dL)122.6 ± 10.3101.8 ± 7.0ns
 SBP (mmHg)124.6 ± 1.8128.4 ± 2.2ns
 DBP (mmHg)62.2 ± 0.966.3 ± 1.40.025
  • The χ2 analysis revealed no significant differences between groups with respect to ethnicity, sex, and number of the NGT, prediabetic, and T2DM with vs. without CAC. Abdominal CT data available in a subset (n = 65). One additional individual had VAT data only as abdominal circumference was larger than the field of view. IMT was missing in three subjects in the CAC− group and two subjects in the CAC+ group secondary to technical difficulty; PWV data not available in five subjects in the CAC− group and 12 in the CAC+ group because of inadequate quality of the study secondary to obesity. ns, not significant. DBP, diastolic blood pressure; SBP systolic blood pressure.