Table 1—

Presenting characteristics of study population, including all subjects at baseline and those with laboratory studies available from return visits after 6 months of follow-up care

EXCH InitialHFC InitialPEXCH 6-month returnHFC 6-month returnP
Number35928912694
Sex (F/M)243/116180/1090.15*92/3467/270.78*
Race (%)0.42*0.42*
African American90.389.685.789.4
Caucasian7.59.711.19.6
Other2.20.73.21.1
Therapy (%)0.87*0.68*
Meal plan only20.31822.216.0
Sulfonylurea43.545.741.344.7
Insulin33.433.932.536.2
Both2.82.443.2
Obese (%)7780.30.32*69.879.80.09*
Age (years)52 ± 0.752 ± 0.80.9657.5 ± 1.055.2 ± 1.30.14
BMI (kg/m2)33.7 ± 0.533.2 ± 0.40.4132.1 ± 0.732.9 ± 0.80.41
Duration (years)4.8 ± 0.44.9 ± 0.40.956.2 ± 0.75.3 ± 0.80.39
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)10.3 ± 0.2310.7 ± 0.250.2610.8 ± 0.410.3 ± 0.40.37
HbA1c (%)9.32 ± 0.19.57 ± 0.20.239.46 ± 0.209.69 ± 0.250.46
Blood pressure (mmHg)
 Systolic127.5 ± 1.1128.8 ± 1.10.43130.3 ± 1.7128.8 ± 1.80.56
 Diastolic77.7 ± 0.677.9 ± 0.60.7977.9 ± 0.976.5 ± 0.90.29
LDL cholesterol (mmol/I)3.62 ± 0.063.7 ± 0.070.263.85 ± 0.13.74 ± 0.120.46
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.11 ± 0.021.10 ± 0.020.611.12 ± 0.031.12 ± 0.030.9
Triglycerides (mmol/I)1.75 ± 0.072.12 ± 0.150.141.91 ± 0.171.89 ± 0.160.70
C-peptide (mmol/l)0.89 ± 0.080.90 ± 0.030.850.87 ± 0.040.90 ± 0.050.61
  • Data are means ± SEM or %. Comparisons are by unpaired Student’s t test, except where indicated by

  • *

    *2) or

  • (Mann-Whitney U test).