Table 1

Hazard ratios (95% CI) of development of islet autoantibodies (AAB), type 1 diabetes, and autoantibodies to TGCA for specific gluten exposure variables in the BABYDIET study, with and without adjustment for duration of breast-feeding, breast-feeding at first gluten exposure, age at first exposure to solid food, and number of days with gluten exposure in the 4 weeks after the first gluten exposure

OutcomeOutcome/exposedOutcome/unexposedHazard ratio unadjustedHazard ratio adjusted
Late gluten exposure (intention to treat)
 Any islet AAB15/7312/771.4 (0.7−3.0)1.4 (0.6−3.9)
 Multiple islet AAB9/738/771.2 (0.5−3.2)1.3 (0.5−3.4)
 Type 1 diabetes8/736/771.3 (0.5−3.8)1.5 (0.5−4.3)
 TGCA8/7314/770.6 (0.2−1.4)0.6 (0.2−1.4)
Gluten introduction 10.5–13.5 months compared with 4.5–7.5 months (per protocol)
 Any islet AAB16/637/441.8 (0.7−4.3)2.4 (0.9−6.8)
 Multiple islet AAB11/635/441.6 (0.6−4.6)2.2 (0.7−7.2)
 Type 1 diabetes8/634/441.3 (0.4−4.4)2.1 (0.5−8.4)
 TGCA7/639/440.5 (0.2−1.4)0.6 (0.2−1.8)
Age at gluten introduction (per month later)
 Any islet AAB1.1 (0.9−1.2)1.1 (0.97−1.3)
 Multiple islet AAB1.1 (0.9−1.3)1.2 (0.9−1.4)
 Type 1 diabetes1.1 (0.9−1.3)1.1 (0.9−1.4)
 TGCA1.0 (0.8−1.1)1.0 (0.8−1.1)