Table 1—

Characteristics and intake of dietary fiber in 552 male and female nondiabetic relatives of subjects with type 2 diabetes

MenWomen
n248304
Age (years)50.1 (10.2)51.4 (10.4)
Length of education (years)
  6–9 (basic)142 (57)151 (50)
  >9 (secondary or higher)106 (43)153 (50)
Physical activity (MET/day)10.3 (3.8)8.8 (3.2)
BMI (kg/m2)26.5 (3.0)26.3 (4.0)
Waist-to-hip ratio0.95 (0.06)0.83 (0.06)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)129 (15)129 (17)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)80 (10)80 (9)
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)5.5 (0.6)5.4 (0.6)
Fasting serum insulin (pmol/l)48 (27)47 (25)
Serum triglycerides (mmol/l)1.42 (0.78)*1.24 (0.61)
Serum total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.63 (0.93)*5.67 (1.07)
Serum LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.78 (0.86)3.71 (0.98)§
Serum HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.21 (0.27)1.40 (0.32)
Fasting serum NEFAs (μmol/l)451 (168)533 (182)#
2-h serum NEFAs (μmol/l)167 (57)149 (50)#
Glucose tolerance status**
  Normal glucose tolerance191 (77)241 (79)
  Impaired fasting glucose33 (13)33 (11)
  Impaired glucose tolerance24 (10)30 (10)
Energy intake (kcal)2,249 (1,883–2,721)1,604 (1,377–1,856)
Dietary intake (g)
  Total dietary fiber††21.6 (17.6–25.7)17.1 (14.2–20.6)
  Water-insoluble dietary fiber‡‡15.3 (12.4–18.5)11.8 (9.8–14.1)
  Water-soluble dietary fiber§§4.7 (3.9–5.6)4.0 (3.3–4.8)
  • Data are n (%) for categorical variables, median (25th–75th percentile) for dietary variables, and otherwise mean (SD).

  • *

    * n = 246;

  • n = 302;

  • n = 244;

  • §

    § n = 301;

  • n = 245;

  • n = 238;

  • #

    # n = 286;

  • **

    ** glucose tolerance status according to 1998 WHO criteria (26);

  • ††

    †† because different methods were used to analyze total fiber and fiber fractions, the sum of the fractions is not the same as the amount of total fiber;

  • ‡‡

    ‡‡ water-insoluble dietary fiber consists of cellulose, lignin, and water-insoluble noncellulosic polysaccharides;

  • §§

    §§ water-soluble noncellulosic polysaccharides.