Table 3—

Multiple linear regression models with the HOMA insulin resistance index as dependent variable and fiber and other dietary and clinical variables as independent variables in nondiabetic relatives of subjects with type 2 diabetes

Model 1 (n = 552)
Model 2a (n = 546)
Model 2b (n = 546)
Model 2c (n = 546)
Regression coefficient (SE)PRegression coefficient (SE)PRegression coefficient (SE)PRegression coefficient (SE)P
Intercept−5.27 (0.81)<0.0001−5.25 (0.81)<0.0001−5.30 (0.81)<0.0001
Sex−0.05 (0.04)*0.200.20 (0.05)<0.00010.20 (0.05)<0.00010.21 (0.05)<0.0001
Age0.01 (0.002)<0.0001−0.004 (0.002)0.058−0.004 (0.002)0.053−0.004 (0.002)0.032
Length of education−0.11 (0.09)0.23
Physical activity−0.26 (0.06)<0.0001−0.20 (0.05)<0.0001−0.20 (0.05)<0.0001−0.20 (0.05)<0.0001
BMI1.81 (0.14)<0.00010.91 (0.15)<0.00010.91 (0.15)<0.00010.93 (0.15)<0.0001
Waist-to-hip ratio3.06 (0.28)<0.00011.38 (0.28)<0.00011.39 (0.28)<0.00011.36 (0.28)<0.0001
Systolic blood pressure1.28 (0.19)<0.00010.69 (0.16)<0.00010.69 (0.16)<0.00010.69 (0.16)<0.0001
Serum triglycerides0.49 (0.04)<0.00010.23 (0.05)<0.00010.23 (0.05)<0.00010.23 (0.05)<0.0001
Serum HDL cholesterol−0.74 (0.09)§<0.0001−0.17 (0.09)0.045−0.17 (0.09)0.047−0.18 (0.09)0.043
Saturated fatty acids0.07 (0.11)0.51
Thiamin−0.002 (0.07)0.97
Vitamin C−0.05 (0.03)0.10
β-Carotene−0.04 (0.03)0.13
Total fiber−0.38 (0.08)<0.0001−0.17 (0.07)0.012
Water-insoluble fiber−0.35 (0.08)<0.0001−0.15 (0.07)0.024
Water-soluble fiber−0.33 (0.09)0.0002−0.14 (0.07)0.049
  • Model 1: univariate models (adjusted for sex and age) for each independent variable; Model 2: all variables simultaneously in the model;

  • *

    * adjusted for age;

  • adjusted for sex (men = 1, women = 2);

  • n = 548;

  • §

    § n = 547.