Table 3—

Multivariate and stratified analyses for glycemic control by race

β-Coefficient for race*HbA1c
WhiteBlack
All diabetic participants (n)194274
  1: Race0.917.478.38
  2: + Age, sex, insulin therapy, duration of diabetes, and site0.887.498.37
  3: + BMI, cardiovascular disease, total cholesterol0.877.498.37
  4: + Education, social support0.727.598.30
  5: + Having a flu shot, physical performance score0.667.618.27
SES stratified analysis
Education-stratified
Education ≥12 years (n)166136
  1: Race0.757.458.21
  2: + Age, sex, insulin therapy, duration of diabetes, and site0.687.498.16
  3: + BMI, cardiovascular disease, total cholesterol0.697.488.17
  4: + Social support0.687.498.17
  5: + Having a flu shot, physical performance score0.667.528.18
Education <12 years (n)28136
  1: Race0.957.598.54
  2: + Age, sex, insulin therapy, duration of diabetes, and site0.877.668.52
  3: + BMI, cardiovascular disease, total cholesterol0.837.698.520.06
  4: + Social support0.807.718.510.07
  5: + Having a flu shot, physical performance score0.697.758.440.11
Income stratified
Income >25,000 (n)10653
  1: Race1.057.438.49
  2: + Age, sex, insulin therapy, duration of diabetes, and site0.947.478.41
  3: + BMI, cardiovascular disease, total cholesterol0.977.468.43
  4: + Education, social support0.937.478.40
  5: + Having a flu shot, physical performance score0.877.508.37
Income ≤$25,000 (n)70191
  1: Race0.827.528.34
  2: + Age, sex, insulin therapy, duration of diabetes, and site0.817.528.34
  3: + BMI, cardiovascular disease, total cholesterol0.857.508.35
  4: + Education, social support0.687.628.30
  5: + Having a flu shot, physical performance score0.627.658.27
  • *

    * β-Coefficient for race in the association with HbA1c level;

  • P < 0.05;

  • P < 0.01;

  • §

    § for income variable, 48 values were missing.