Table 5—

Age-adjusted association of the ponderal index at birth categorized into thirds with fasting insulin and glucose levels and insulin sensitivity, stratified by cardiorespiratory fitness (ml · kg−1 · min−1 · 40th percentile)

Ponderal index (thirds)Vo2max <28.6 ml · kg−1 · min−1 (n = 164)Vo2max ≥28.6 ml · kg−1 · min−1 (n = 247)
Fasting serum insulin levels (mU/l)
 <26.31 kg/m315.0 (13.1–16.9)9.3 (8.3–10.2)
 26.31–27.72 kg/m311.8 (9.7–13.8)9.7 (8.8–10.7)
 >27.72 kg/m312.3 (9.9–13.5)9.0 (8.1–9.9)
P value, lowest versus upper two thirds0.0090.86
P for the interaction between fitness and thinness at birth0.009
Fasting blood glucose levels (mmol/l)
 <26.31 kg/m34.85 (4.72–4.98) mg/dl, 83.44.58 (4.47–4.68) mg/dl, 82.5
 26.31–27.72 kg/m34.60 (4.46–4.74) mg/dl, 82.94.56 (4.45–4.68) mg/dl, 82.2
 >27.72 kg/m34.50 (4.36–4.63) mg/dl, 81.14.50 (4.39–4.60) mg/dl, 81.1
P value, lowest versus upper two-thirds<0.0010.48
P for the interaction between fitness and thinness at birth0.020
Insulin sensitivity index
 <26.31 kg/m30.457 (0.444–0.470)0.501 (0.488–0.513)
 26.31–27.72 kg/m30.475 (0.461–0.488)0.502 (0.490–0.515)
 >27.72 kg/m30.481 (0.468–0.495)0.510 (0.498–0.522)
P value, lowest versus upper two-thirds0.0140.44
P for the interaction between fitness and thinness at birth0.15
  • Data are means (95% CI).