Table 1—

Characteristics of 543 type 1 diabetic patients

VariableIndividuals with vascular complicationsIndividuals without vascular complicationsP
n348195
Sex (M/W)185/16393/920.2
Duration of type 1 diabetes (years)23.6 (19.0–30.3)13.8 (10.8–18.5)<0.001
Age (years)41.8 ± 10.636.1 ± 8.1<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)
 Men25.0 ± 3.124.5 ± 2.30.19
 Women24.7 ± 3.923.2 ± 2.8<0.001
Waist circumference (cm)
 Men90.0 ± 10.288.6 ± 10.00.3
 Women81.9 ± 11.977.8 ± 9.20.002
Smoking status (%)
 Never35.648.7
 Past31.325.6
 Current33.025.6
Pack-years of smoking
 Past9.0 (1.0–27.0)3.3 (0.6–10.3)0.04
 Current15.0 (7.5–27.5)9.6 (1.8–16.9)<0.001
Retinopathy (%)
 No12.4
 Nonproliferative42.8
 Proliferative44.8
Normoalbuminuria (%)38.9
Microalbuminuria (%)24.2
Macroalbuminuria (%)36.9
Cardiovascular disease (%)34.8
Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)128 ± 22115 ± 13<0.001
76 ± 1274 ± 110.06
Hypertension (%)57.513.4<0.001
Serum creatinine (μmol/l)75 (68–90)72 (64–79)<0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.49 ± 1.204.97 ± 1.09<0.001
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.60 ± 0.431.69 ± 0.450.02
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.28 ± 1.102.86 ± 0.93<0.001
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.14 (0.85–1.60)0.84 (0.66–1.08)<0.001
HbA1c (%)9.0 ± 1.67.7 ± 1.3<0.001
Urinary pentosidine (nmol/mmol creatinine)0.47 (0.34–0.68)0.42 (0.32–0.55)0.001
Soluble VCAM-1 (ng/ml)432 ± 142378 ± 103<0.001
Soluble E-selectin (ng/ml)36 ± 1730 ± 11<0.001
CRP (mg/l)1.32 (0.52–2.92)0.69 (0.35–1.79)<0.001
IL-6 (pg/ml)2.14 (1.35–3.96)1.55 (1.05–2.42)<0.001
TNF-α (pg/ml)3.17 (2.35–4.37)2.23 (1.68–2.85)<0.001
General score of inflammatory markers (sd)0.21 ± 0.72−0.38 ± 0.59<0.001
  • Data are n, medians (interquartile range), means ± SD, or %. Hypertension was defined as systolic pressure ≥140 mmHg, and/or diastolic pressure ≥90 mmHg, and/or use of antihypertensive drugs.